CHEMICAL IMMOBILISATION OF TRACE ELEMENTS USING INDUSTRIAL BY-PRODUCTS
. Alkaline soil additives used in this study, as cement kiln dust and lime mud, resulted in significant rise of the pH in contaminated soil and sludge mixtures, while buffering capacity of the sludge appeared to be much stronger than that of the soil. Total concentrations of the investigated trace elements in the tested samples in most cases were above limit values given in Lithuanian environmental normative documents HN 60:2015 and LAND 20:2005; Cd, Zn and Pb concentrations exceeding MPCs by 2-10 times. Nickel, cadmium and copper in the sludge appeared to be the most mobile elements, their EDTA-extractable fraction reaching 30-50% from the total. The tested industrial by-products in most cases significantly reduced trace element mobility. Immobilizing effect in the contaminated soil was from low to moderate, while impact on the reduction of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, As, Se, Hg mobility in the sludge was much stronger. Alkaline treatment was not so effective to reduce mobility of Cu and As in the soil, but immobilising effect of lime mud on these elements in the sludge was significant. A multivariate data analysis model with two principle components explained 94% of the data variation. The most distinctive factor, separating samples, was the origin of the two tested metal-rich substrates: contaminated soil and sewage sludge. Contaminated soil could be distinguished by high concentrations of As, Tl, Hg and Pb. Both alkaline treatments on sewage sludge were more effective, thus scores are further from the origin, although, difference between kiln dust and lime mud immobilising effectiveness was not so significant. Application of alkaline amendments: cement kiln dust and lime mud, proved to have strong immobilizing effect on the most of the investigated trace elements, and usage of local by-products for contaminated soil (sludge) remediation purposes could be seen as an environmentally friendly, cost-effective and safe disposal alternative.