METHODOLOGY OF TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS ASSESSMENT IN AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS BY BIODIVERSITY INDICATORS USE
Keywords:diversitology, macrophytes, surface waters, heavy metals
The implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC within Eastern European is now becoming of utmost significance. This is especially relevant to the territory of Ukrainian Polessie, which is characterized by specific geological and geomorphological conditions, excessive humidification and significant anthropogenic pressure on all components of ecosystems. In this section, we present a methodology for evaluating the content of specific toxicological substances based on a diversitological approach to the macrophyte composition of reservoirs. At the same time, the possibility to apply diversisologic indicators for the bio-indication of the content of heavy metals in coastal soils and bottom deposits was assessed. The most striking changes in the species composition are manifested at the points of the most significant anthropogenic pressure in the presence of toxic compounds in aquatic ecosystems. Significant variations in view indices were noted when the high concentration of heavy metals was reached in the bottom soil. The most significant influence on the species composition is due to high concentrations of the active forms of zinc and cuprum cations in both coastal soils and bottom deposits, although the excessive maximum limits allowed were only in the second group of substances. The close correlation between the content of all investigated groups of heavy metals in bottom deposits and species numbers, the index of dominance, Shannon Diversity Index, and Pielou’s Evenness Index were established. For Margalef Species Richness Index, close dependencies were established for active forms of cations of nickel, cobalt, zinc and cadmium, for other groups the bonds were weak. For Sørensen–Dice Index weaknesses were found with the contents of active forms of cations of nickel and chromium; for other groups of active forms of heavy metals, except cobalt cations, close ties were established as well.