THE ENVIRONMENT FOR ENTREPRENEURIAL ATTITUDES IN POPULATIONS OF RURAL AREAS IN POLAND FORMERLY OCCUPIED BY STATE-OWNED FARMS
Keywords:entrepreneurship, rural areas, state-owned farms in Poland (PGR)
Despite the lapse of 30 years since the state system transformation in Poland was started, the rural areas in Poland that used to be occupied by state-owned farms continue to experience many complex economic and social problems. The state reforms, which for example led to the dissolution of all state-owned farms (in Polish, Państwowe Gospodarstwa Rolne, PGR), have had a significant effect on the formation of the institutional system in rural Poland. The existence and then liquidation of PGR affected not only the financial standing of large populations but also instilled in many a sense of entitlement, leading to the so-called learned hopelessness. An investigation into entrepreneurial attitudes shows that as many as 71.60% of the respondents equate ‘being entrepreneurial’ with ‘starting own business’. Despite the difficult situation on the labour market, only 12.35% of the interviewed persons have tried to start their own companies after state-farms were dissolved. The main determinant of such a low level of entrepreneurship among the respondents, in their opinion, was the lack of own funds, as this was indicated by 49.38% of the surveyed population. This attitude is also manifested in the answers concerning expectations towards public administration – 82.10% assumed that the state should be responsible for providing direct financial support. The results of this study into entrepreneurial attitudes as well as previous investigations among residents living in rural areas formely occupied by state farms confirm marginal interest in starting business activity among these populations.