ADVOCATING FOR ADOLESCENT SUBSTANCE USE RECOVERY: AN ALTERNATIVE MODEL
Adolescents at risk for substance use disorders face unique challenges in recovery when compared with adults. Counselors may seek to address developmental considerations with such clients, but often lack diagnostic and community resources necessary to provide holistic care. The Alternative Peer Group model shows promise in addressing adolescent recovery, however, more research is needed. We conclude from the limited research that has been conducted on APGs that there are positive aspects to consider in implementing this model including a positive peer group that offers support in recovery, 12-step meetings that are adapted specifically for adolescents, parent education and support, and community outreach to other treatment facilities and mental health providers. We also suggest that an important way to advocate for adolescent recovery from substance use disorder is for researchers to continue to conduct rigorous studies on this model as well as other promising recovery support systems for adolescents while recognizing the unique differences between adult and adolescent recovery.
Ali, S., Mouton, C. P., Jabeen, S., Ofoemezie, E. K., Bailey, R. K., Shadid, M., & Zeng, Q. (2011). Early detection of illicit drug use in teenagers. Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience, 8(12), 24–28.
Allen, J. P., Chango, J., Szwedo, D., Schad, M., & Marston, E. (2012). Predictors of susceptibility to peer influence regarding substance use in adolescence. Child Development 83(1). 337–350.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Alexandria, VA: Author.
Association of Alternative Peer Groups. (n.d.). Retrieved February 3, 2019, from http://www.aapg-recovery.com/
Betty Ford Institute Consensus Panel. (2007). What is recovery? A working definition from the Betty Ford Institute. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 33(3), 221–228. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2007.06.001
Binarium Productions. (2011, January 26). Alternative peer group [Video file]. Retrieved January 21, 2019, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v¼ohsXpXRD3cs
Brown, S. A., McGue, M., Maggs, J., Schulenberg, J., Hingson, R., Swartzwelder, S. . . .Murphy, S. (2008). A developmental perspective on alcohol and youths 16 to 20 years of age. Pediatrics, 121(4), 290–310. doi.org/10.1542/peds.2007-2243D
Castellanos-Ryan, N., Parent, S., Vitaro, F., & Tremblay, R. E. (2013). Pubertal development, personality, and substance use: A 10-year longitudinal study from childhood to adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 122(3), 782–796.
Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2016). Key substance use and mental health indicators in the United States: Results from the 2015 National Advocating for Adolescent Substance Use Recovery: An Alternative Model 2019, 23, 133–152 p. Survey on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 16-4984, NSDUH Series H-51). Retrieved January 15, 2019, from http://www.samhsa.gov/data/
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2007). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance-United States. Surveillance Summaries. MMWR 2008:57 (No. SS-12). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010). Alcohol-Related Disease Impact (ARDI). Atlanta, GA: CDC.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2015). YRBS Data User’s Guide: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Retrieved February 18, 2019, from https://www.cdc.gov/yrbss/
Collier, C., Hilliker, R., & Onwuegbuzie, A. (2014). Alternative peer group: A model for youth recovery. Journal of Groups in Addiction & Recovery, 9, 40–53. doi:10.1080/1556035X. 2013.836899
Copeland, M., Fisher, J. C., Moody, J., & Feinberg, M. E. (2018). Different kinds of lonely: Dimensions of isolation and substance use in adolescence. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 47(8), 1755–1770.
Galvan, A. (2014). Insights about adolescent behavior, plasticity, and policy from neuroscience research. Neuron, 83, 262–265. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2014.06.027
Haney-Caron, E., Brogan, L., NeMoyer, A., Kelley, S., & Heilbrun, K. (2016). Diagnostic changes to DSM-5: The potential impact on juvenile justice. The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 44, 457–469.
Kaminer, Y. & Winters, K. C. (2012). Proposed DSM-5 substance use disorders for adolescents: If you build it, will they come? The American Journal on Addictions, 21, 280–281. doi.org/10.1111/j.1521-0391.2012.00217.x
Kaplan, L. (2008). The role of recovery support services in recovery-oriented systems of care (White paper DHHS Publication No. [SMA] 08-4315). Retrieved March 1, 2019, from http:2037I12//www.samhsa.gov/
Kelly, J. F., Dow, S. J., Yeterian, J. D., & Kahler, C. W. (2010). Can 12-step group participation strengthen and extend the benefits of adolescent addiction treatment? A prospective analysis. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 110, 117–125. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.02.019
Kelly, J. F., Myers, M. G., & Brown, S. A. (2005). The effects of age composition of 12- step groups on adolescent 12-step participation and substance use outcome. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 15, 63–72. doi:10.1300/J029v15n01_05
Kelly, S. M., Gryczynski, J., Mitchell, S. G., Kirk, A., O’Grady, K. E., & Schwartz, R. P. (2014). Concordance between DSM-5 and DSM-IV nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis use disorder diagnoses among pediatric patients. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 140, 213–216. doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.03.034
Logan, D. E., & Marlatt, G. A. (2010). Harm reduction therapy: A practice-friendly review of research. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 66(2), 201–14. http://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20669
Malhotra, A., Basu, D., & Guptra, N. (2007). Psychosocial treatment of substance use disorders in adolescents. Journal of Indian Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 1(1), 1–13.
Mee-Lee, D., Shulman, G. D., Fishman, M. J., Gastfriend, M. J., & Griffith, J. H (2001). Adolescent patient placement criteria. In American society of addiction medicine (Ed.), ASAM patient placement criteria for the treatment of substance related disorders (p. 177–271). Chevy Chase, MD: American Society of Addiction Medicine, Inc.
Monahan, K., Egan, E., Van Horn, M.L., Arthur, M, & Hawkins, D. (2011). Community level effect of individual and peer risk and protective factors on adolescent substance use. Journal of Community Psychology, 39(4). 478–498.
Nash, A. (2013). The alternative peer group: What can ‘winners’ from this program teach us about recovery from adolescent substance use disorder? Dissertation Abstracts International, 75. Retrieved December 16, 2018, from https://ezproxy.shsu.edu/login?url¼ http://search.proquest.com/docview/1449150959? Aaccountid¼7065
Nash, A., & Collier, C. (2016). The Alternative Peer Group: A developmentally appropriate recovery support model for adolescents. Journal of Addictions Nursing, 27, 109–119. doi: 10.1097/JAN.0000000000000122
Nash, A., Marcus, M., Engebretson, J., & Bukstein, O. (2015). Recovery from adolescent substance use disorder: Young people in recovery describe the process and keys to success in an alternative peer group. Journal of Groups in Addiction & Recovery, 10(4), 290–312. doi:10.1080/1556035X.2015.1089805
National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2014). Principles of Adolescent Substance Use Disorder Treatment: A Research-Based Guide. Retrieved January 29, 2019, from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/principles-adolescent-substanceuse-disorder- treatment-research-based-guide
Nelson, J., Henderson, S., & Lackey, S. (2015). Adolescent recovery from substance use in alternative peer groups: A revelatory case study. Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation, 6, 1–13. doi.org/10.1177/2150137815596044
Nelson, J. (2016). Palmer Drug Abuse Program: Program Evaluation Interim Report, Sam Houston State University, Houston, TX.
Palmer Drug Abuse Program. (n.d.). Historically speaking. ... Retrieved February 25, 2019, from http://www.pdap.com/aboutus.htm
Robertson, E. B., David, S. L., Rao, S. A. (2003). Preventing Drug Use among Children and Adolescents: A Research-based Guide for Parents, Educators, and Community Leaders (2nd Ed.). Retrieved February 3, 2019, from https://www.drugabuse.gov/sites/default/files/preventingdruguse_2.pdf
Rochat, R., Rossiter, A., Nunley, E., Bahavar, S., Ferraro, K, MacPherson, C., & Basinger,S. (2011). Alternative peer groups: Are they effective? Unpublished manuscript. Advocating for Adolescent Substance Use Recovery: An Alternative Model 2019, 23, 133–152 p.
Sacks, J. J., Gonzales, K. R., Bouchery, E. E., Tomedi, L. E., & Brewer, R. D. (2015). 2010 national and state costs of excessive alcohol consumption. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 49(5), 73–79. doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2015.05.031
Satre, D. D., Mertens, J. R., Arean, P. A., & Weisner, C. (2004). Five-year alcohol and drug treatment outcome of older adults versus middle-aged and younger adults in a managed care programme. Addiction, 99, 1286–1297. doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2004.00831.x
Steinberg, L. (2008). A social neuroscience perspective on adolescent risk-taking. Developmental Review, 28, 78–106. doi:10.1016/j.dr.2007.08.002
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2012). SAMHSA’s working definition of recovery. Retrieved from February 3, 2019, https://store.samhsa.gov/shin/content/PEP12-RECDEF/PEP12-RECDEF.pdf
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2015). Recovery and recovery support. Retrieved from https://www.samhsa.gov/recovery
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2017). Key substance use and mental health indicators in the United States: Results from the 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 17-5044, NSDUH Series H-52). Rockville, MD:Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved from https://www.samhsa.gov/data
Topolski, T. D., Edwards, T. C., and Patrick, D. L. (2002). User’s manual and interpretation guide for the Youth Quality of Life (YQOL) Instruments. Seattle, WA: University of Washington, Dept. of Health Services.
Van der Westhuizen, M. (2015). Relapse prevention for chemically addicted adolescents in recovery: So which model works? Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work, 12, 400–411. doi.org/10.1080/15433714.2013.858089
Van Hemel-Ruiter, M. E., de Jong, P. J., Ostafin, B. D., & Oldehinkel, A. J. (2015). Reward-related attentional bias and adolescent substance use: Aprognostic relationship? PLoS ONE 10(3). 1–12.
White, W. (2002). Alcoholism/addiction as a chronic disease: From rhetoric to clinical reality. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 20, 107–129. doi:10.1300/J020v20n03_06
Williams, G., & Ramirez, D. (2017). Generation Found. USA: Gathr Films.
Wills, T. A. & Yaeger, A. M. (2003). Family factors and adolescent substance use: Models and mechanisms. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12(6), 222–226.
Winters, K.C., Botzet, A.M., Fahnhorst, T., Koskey R. (2009). Adolescent substance abuse treatment: A review of evidence-based research. In Leukefeld C.,
Gullotta T., Staton Tindall M., eds. Handbook on the prevention and treatment of substance abuse in adolescence (pp. 73–96). NY: Springer Academic Publishing.
Winters, K. C. (2011). Commentary on O’Brien: Substance use disorders in DSM-V when applied to adolescents. Addiction, 106(5), 882–897. doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03334.x
Winters, K. C. (2013). Advances in the science of adolescent drug involvement: Implications for assessment and diagnosis. Current Opinions in Psychiatry, 26(4), 318–324. doi.org/10.1097/YCO.0b013e328361e814
Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Articles submitted to the journal should be original contributions and should not be under consideration for any other publication at the same time. Authors submitting articles warrant that the work is not an infringement of any existing copyright and will indemnify the publisher against any breach of such warranty. For ease of dissemination and to ensure proper policing of use, papers and contributions become the legal copyright of the publisher unless otherwise agreed.
The International Journal of Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach applies the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC) licence to articles and other works published. Under this Open Access licence, authors agree that anyone can remix, tweak or build upon their articles in whole or part for free for non-comercial purposes using proper citation.
Readers may copy and distribute the material of this Journal in any medium or format, or reuse its content non-commercially as long as the authors of ideas and original source are properly cited. Users must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the licence, and indicate if changes were made. Users may not use the material of this Journal for commercial purposes without notification and agreement of copyright holders.