RELATIONSHIP WITH AUTHORITY IN NARCISSISM

Dovilė Petronytė-Kvedarauskienė, Gražina Gudaitė

Abstract


Background. Relationship with authority is a significant social as well as psychological factor which was destructively influenced by the Soviet authoritarian regime. In Western cultures, authority is often neglected while stressing the importance of an individual, and that leads to narcissistic problems. Though relevance of the issue of relationship with authority is acknowledged in contemporary psychology, it has been scarcely studied so far. Thorough conceptualization of the construct of relationship with authority is necessary for both an adequate assessment of it and applicability of the knowledge about the phenomenon in psychotherapy practice. Finding the narcissistic motives in relation with authority would help to handle with narcissism in research as well as in psychotherapy.

The aim of the article is to give a comprehensive conception of relationship with authority with regard to its influence on human psyche development. We seek to distinguish levels and modes of this relationship. The final task is to discern specific motives of relationship with authority which are characteristic of narcissism.

Methods. Psychodynamic, mostly Analytical, literature has been reviewed and analysed to explore psychological concept of relationship with authority and its part in inner dynamics of narcissism.

Results. Authority can be described as a power, reputation or competence attributed to a person, social group or institution. Three levels of relationship with authority can be discerned: relationship with 1) outer authority figures; 2) inner authority; 3) transpersonal authority. Analysis of literature has led to distinguishing such characteristic motives of narcissistic relationship with authority: aggrandizement or depreciating one’s own authority; fright, anger with regard to or fight against authority; abusive authoritative stance or excessive submissiveness; idealization or devaluation of authorities.

Conclusions. The importance of the specific modes of relationship with authority in narcissism is inferred with recommendations to include the factor into assessment and psychotherapy of narcissism. 


Keywords


authority, relationship with authority, authority complex, Ego-Self axis, narcissism

Full Text:

PDF

References


Asper, K. (1993). The Abandoned Child Within. On Losing and Regaining Self-Worth. New York: Fromm International Publishing Corporation.

Bieliauskienė, I., Gudaitė, G. (2016). Lyties veiksnys asmens santykyje su autoritetais: kokybinė subjektyvaus patyrimo analizė [Gender issues in an individual’s relationship with authority: qualitative analysis of subjective experience]. Psichologija, 53, 101-113.

Bochenski, J. M. (2004). Kas yra autoritetas? Įvadas į autoriteto logiką [What does authority mean? Introduction to logics of authority]. Vilnius: Mintis.

Brookes, J. (2015). The effect of overt and covert narcissism on self-esteem and self-efficacy beyond self-esteem. Personality and Individual Differences, 85, 172-175.

Campbell, W. K., Miller, J. D. (2011). Introduction. In W. K. Campbell, J. D. Miller (Eds.), The handbook of Narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Theoretical Approaches, Empirical Findings, and Treatments. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Corsini, R. (2002). The Dictionary of Psychology. New York: Brunner-Routledge: Dieckmann, H. (1977). Some Aspects of the Development of Authority. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 22 (3), 230-242.

Edinger, F. E. (1992). Ego and Archetype: Individuation and the Religious Function of the Psyche. Boston and London: Shambala.

Gailienė, D. (2015). Trauma and Culture. In D. Gailienė (Ed.), Lithuanian Faces After Transition: Psychological Consecuences of Cultural Trauma. Vilnius: Eugrimas.

Gailienė, D., Kazlauskas, E. (2004). Po penkiasdešimties metų: sovietinių represijų Lietuvoje psichologiniai padariniai ir įveikos būdai [Fifty years on: Psychological consequences and handling possibilities of Soviet repressions in Lithuania]. In D. Gailienė (Ed.), Sunkių traumų psichologija: politinių represijų padariniai [Psychology of severe traumatization: Consequences of political repressions]. Vilnius: Lietuvos gyventojų genocido ir rezistencijos tyrimų centras.

Grigutytė, N., Gudaitė, G. (2016). Santykių su autoritetu vertinimo klausimyno kūrimas ir psichometriniai rodikliai [Creation and psychometric indicators of Relationship with authority measurement inventory]. A poster in Lithuanian Psychology Congress, May 6-7, 2016.

Grigutytė, N., Rukšaitė, G. (2016). Lithuanian Historical Heritage: Relation with Authority and Psychological Well-being. The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences, eISSN: 2357-1330: 274-284. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.07.02.27. Retrieved on 10.01.2017.

Gudaitė, G. (2016). Santykis su autoritetu ir asmeninės galios pajauta [Relationship with authority and the sense of personal strength]. Vilnius: Vilniaus universiteto leidykla.

Gudaitė,G (2013). The Dynamic of Authority Images in the Context of Consequences of Collective Trauma. In E. Kiehl (Ed.), Copenhagen 2013 – 100 Years On: Origins, Innovations and Controversies. Proceedings of the 19th Congress of International Association for Analytical Psychology. Einsiedeln: Daimon Verlag. pp. 345-350.

Gudaitė, G. (2014). Restoration of Continuity: Desperation or Hope in Facing the Consequences of Cultural Trauma. In G. Gudaitė, M. Stein (Eds.), Confronting Cultural Trauma: Jungian Approaches to Understanding and Healing. New Orleans, Louisiana: Spring Journal Books.

Jacoby, M. (2008). Individuation and Narcissism. The Psychology of the Self in Jung and Kohut. New York: Routledge.

Jung, C. G. (1977). A Review of the Complex Theory. C.W.8. USA: Princeton University Press.

Jung, C. G. (1978). Aion: Researches into the Phenomenology of the Self. C.W.9, II. USA: Princeton University Press.

Jung, C. G. (2010). Atsiminimai, vizijos, apmąstymai [Dreams, momories, reflections]. Vilnius: Margi Raštai.

Kalinenko, V., Slutskaya, M. (2014). “Father of the People” versus “Enemies of the People”: a Split-Father Complex as the Foundation for Collective Trauma in Russia. In G. Gudaitė, M. Stein (Eds.), Confronting Cultural Trauma: Jungian Approaches to Understanding and Healing. New Orleans, Louisiana: Spring Journal Books.

Kernberg, O. F. (2004). Pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder: Theoretical background and diagnostic classification. In Aggressivity, narcissism, and self-destructiveness in the therapeutic relationship. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. pp. 44-59.

Kohut, H. (2009). The Restoration of the Self. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Kuodytė, V. (2005). Traumatising History. In D. Gailienė (ed.), The Psychology of Extreme Traumatization. The Aftermath of Political Repression. Vilnius: Genocide and Resistance Research Center of Lithuania.

Lasch, C. (1979). The Culture of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.

McWilliams, N. (2014). Psichoanalitinė diagnostika. Asmenybės struktūros samprata klinikiniame procese [Psychoanalytic Diagnosis. Understanding Personality Structure in the Clinical Process]. Vilnius: Vaistų žinios. 86

Miller, A. (1986). Depression and Grandiosity as Related Forms of Narcissistic Disturbances. In A. P. Morisson (Ed.), Essential Papers on Narcissism. New York: New York University Press.

Miller, A. (2011). Gabaus vaiko drama ir tikrosios savasties paieška [The Drama of the Gifted Child: The Search for the True Self]. Vilnius: VAGA.

Miller, J. D., Lynam, D. R., Campbell W. K. (2016). Measures of Narcissism and Their Relation to DSM-5 Pathological Traits: A Critical Reappraisal. Assessment, 23 (1), 3-9.

Peterson, U., Luik, M. (2014). Expressions of Transgenerational Trauma in the Estonian Context. In G. Gudaitė, M. Stein (Eds.), Confronting Cultural Trauma: Jungian Approaches to Understanding and Healing. Spring Journal Books.

Pincus, A. L., Ansell, E. B., Pimentel, C. A., Cain, N. M., Wright, A., & Levy, K. N. (2009). Initial Construction and Validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory. Psychological Assessment, 21, 365-379.

Psichologijos žodynas [Dictionary of Psychology] (1993). Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidykla.

Pulcini, E. (2012). The Individual Without Passions: Modern Individualism and the Loss of the Social Bond. Plymouth, UK: Lexington Books.

Reber, A. S. (1987). The Penguin Dictionary of Psychology. London: Penguin Books. Raskin, R. N., & Terry, H. (1988). A Principal-Components Analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and Further Evidence of Its Construct Validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(5), 890-902.

Samuels, A. (1985). Introduction. In A. Samuels (Ed.), The Father: Contemporary Jungian Perspectives. London: Free Association Books.

Schwarz-Salant, N. (1982). Narcissism and Character Transformation. The Psychology of Narcissistic Character Disorders. Toronto: Inner City Books.

Wilke, H. J. (1977). The Authority Complex and the Authoritarian Personality. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 22 (3), 243-249.

Winnicott, D. W. (1990). Ego Distortion in terms of True and False Self. In D. W. Winnicott (Ed.) The Maturational Processes and the Facilitating Environment. London: Karnac Books.

Zeigler-Hill, V., Clark C. B., Pickard, J. D. (2008). Narcissistic Subtypes and Contingent Self-Esteem: Do All Narcissists Base Their Self-Esteem on the Same Domains? Journal of Personality, 76:4, 753-774.

Young-Eisendrth, P., Wiedmann, F. L. (1987). Female Authority: Empowering Women trough Psychotherapy. New York: The Guilford Press.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7220/2345-024X.19.4

Copyright (c) 2017 International Journal of Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

ISSN 1941-7233 (Print)

ISSN 2345-024X (Online)