THE INFLUENCE OF WINTER COVER CROPS AND THEIR INCORPORATION METHODS ON SPRING WHEAT CROP WEEDINESS AND PRODUCTIVITY
Keywords:spring wheat, organic farming, winter cover crops, incorporation method, weed, productivity
Field experiment was conducted in 2020 and 2021 at the Experimental Station of Vytautas Magnus University Agriculture Academy. The soil of the experiment is Endocalcaric Amphistagnic Luvisol. Experimental treatments: Factor A: methods of incorporation of cover crops into the soil: 1. Deep ploughing (20 cm deep) in spring; 2. Shallow ploughing (6 cm deep) in the spring. Factor B: winter cover crops: 1. Without cover crop; 2. Crimson (incarnate) clover (10 kg ha-1); 3. Winter vetch (50 kg ha-1); 4. Perennial ryegrass (10 kg ha-1); 5. Winter rye (50 kg ha-1). According to the data of the experimental study, in the spring wheat crop dominated odorless shunramun, common ryegrass, soil thistle and dandelion. The lowest number of weeds was found in the crops of spring wheat grown after crimson clover, which was deeply incorporated for green manure in the spring, and perennial ryegrass, which was deeply and shallowly incorporated. The lowest weed dry biomass was found in the crop of spring wheat grown after winter rye, which was deeply ploughed for green manure in the spring. Wheat grain yield in deep ploughing plots without cover crops or with winter cover crops was significantly from 1.3 to 2.0 times higher than in shallow ploughing plots.