Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” <p>Proceedings of Conference “Rural Development” are published periodically every two years since 2003 and indexed by Clarivate Analytics (Web of Science), EBSCO (Academic Search Complete). The conference proceedings dedicated to publishing empirical and theoretical studies and analyses in <em>Agro-innovations and Food Technologies, Biosystems Engineering and Environment Integrity, Sustainable Use of Natural Bio-Resources, Social Innovations for Rural Development</em>.</p> <p><strong>All the previous issues of the Proceedings could be found</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Here</strong></a></p> en-US (Assoc. prof. dr. Judita Černiauskienė) (Aurelija Markelytė) Tue, 25 Jan 2022 07:44:41 +0200 OJS 60 PROBLEMS IN THE USE OF LOCAL SIGNIFICANCE ROADS: A CASE STUDY OF ŠIAULIAI DISTRICT KAIRIAI ELDERSHIP <p>A road is an engineering structure that performs a very important purpose of transportation. Roads are divided into categories that stand out for their importance and significance. One such category is local roads, which are classified in the lowest category. The most common problems that arise with these roads are that on this category of roads due to low traffic, road maintenance is simply not carried out or many such roads are not registered with the State Enterprise Center of Registers, resulting in changes in road boundaries when forming adjacent plots. Discrepancies in the use of local significance roads are observed as well during road cadastral measurements and the preparation of cartographic material. The aim of this article is to analyze the problems of local road use in Šiauliai district Kairiai eldership. The analyzed topic is new, little studied in the domestic and foreign literature, but it is very relevant in production, therefore there is a need to analyze and identify the problems of the use of local significance roads in more detail. During the research, the special plan of the communication system of Kairiai eldership, land management plans and orthophotographic maps were examined. It has been established that Kairiai eldership is classified as a suburban area, which is likely to affect the growth of the local road network, which currently amounts to 120 km. A detailed analysis of the lengths of local roads in Kairiai eldership revealed that the entire network makes up 37 per cent of public roads, 36 per cent of streets and 27 per cent of internal roads. The majority (more than 15 km) of local significance internal roads are made up of gravel pavements. After the cadastral measurements, analysis of territory planning documents and other planned material, it was established that 29 local significance roads were not registered in Kairiai eldership, and instead of the indicative length of 20.8 km of these roads, only 16.7 km were identified, i.e. 4.1 km discrepancy/deficiency detected. Also, during the study, the analysis of territory planning documents and other primary planning material revealed that the following problems of road use are most common: poor road maintenance, improper road use, selfish connection of the road to the existing land plot and road interference with private land plots. In order to avoid certain identified problems, it would be appropriate to set up a kind of monitoring system that would allow the condition of the roads to be monitored and contribute to the planning of their management. It is also very important to oblige landowners to use existing land plots in an orderly manner. Local road management plans are needed with increased funding as well as obliging landowners to use and maintain their land properly.</p> Virginija Atkocevičienė, Jolanta Valčiukienė, Daiva Juknelienė, Dovydas Livanas Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 COMPARISON OF PEATLAND HYDROLOGICAL MODELS <p>Peatlands have a vital role in carbon sequestration and mitigation of global climate change. Peatlands in the boreal and sub-arctic regions store around 15–30% of global soil carbon. In the European Union the move towards the climate neutrality policy includes activities specifically aimed at the reduction of negative greenhouse gas emissions from peatlands through nature conservation and renewal. In Latvia the total area of peatlands is 645 100 ha. Due to industrial peat extraction and other processes a considerable proportion of peatlands in Latvia are degraded, thus leaving negative impact on both the local wildlife environment and on the global effort to tame the climate change. Areas in Latvia where peat extraction has ended or has been suspended without revitalisation activities in place amount to 18 010 ha. Given the conditions the restoration of degraded peatland environments is important and most often take place in the raised bogs calling for evidence-based decision making through deployment of hydrological models that are applicable for restoration of raised bogs in conditions of Latvia. The analysis of available hydrological models indicate that mathematical deterministic physically based models are applicable for the restoration activities of peatlands. The raised bog model deployed in Männikjärve bog holds the potential to be integrated within a virtual reality environment after further improvements, thus potentially improving decision and environmental policy making process for raised bog area restoration activities. Further work on tailored model for bog restoration considering the data acquisition challenges with input data fed through remote sensing capabilities is proposed.</p> Arnis Cirulis, Edmunds Jansons, Oskars Java, Andris Lapans Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS IN LITHUANIAN RURAL AREAS <p>The aim of the paper was to determine the operational efficiency and environmental impact of five small wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Ukmergė district. The efficiency of these WWTPs, reconstructed by applying the same vertical flow labyrinth technology was calculated according to the most important pollution indicators: biochemical oxygen consumption in 7 days (BOD<sub>7</sub>), total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) in period 2017-2020. It was found that the lowest operational efficiency of Taujėnai wastewater treatment plant was according to BOD<sub>7 </sub>(94-96%). The lowest treatment efficiency of total nitrogen was determined in Dainava WWTP (88-95%). The highest treatment efficiency according to total phosphorus was in Šventupė WWTP (86-92%), the lowest in Žemaitkiemis WWTP (72-85%). In order to evaluate the impact of wastewater treatment plants on the environment, their Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was performed. Sludge from wastewater treatment process has been found to have the highest environmental impact and fuel consumption for transport the lowest. Of the five wastewater treatment plants examined, the Vidiškiai wastewater treatment plant has the largest impact on the environment, and Šventupė WWTP has the lowest.</p> Midona Dapkienė, Laima Česonienė, Jolanta Kuzmickienė Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 MULTI-CRITERIA COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF WATER-SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PIPES MANUFACTURED FROM DIFFERENT MATERIALS <p>Recent advances in materials engineering are remarkable. New materials are emerging in the global market, and old ones are constantly being improved. No exceptions and materials for the production of pipes. Nowadays cast iron, steel, reinforced concrete, ceramic, plastic and other materials pipes are used for water supply and sewage networks installation. Construction customers and designers have to choose which materials to use for pipes that they meet the set requirements, are easy to maintain, and to have high longevity. To evaluate the effectiveness of different pipe materials (concrete, reinforced concrete (RC), steel, cast iron, ceramic, polyvinylchloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), glass reinforced plastic (GRP)), the properties and cost were analyzed. Eleven criteria were selected for the evaluation: variety of diameters, mass, resistance of lifting, thermal resistance, abrasion resistance, surface roughness (hydraulic property), nominal stiffness, nominal pressure, embodied energy, CO<sub>2</sub> emission, and cost (product + installation). According to the results the most effective material for pipes used in water supply and sewerage systems is polyethylene PE and polyvinylchloride PVC.</p> Vincas Gurskis, Rytis Skominas, Raimondas Šadzevičius Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 ANALYSIS OF THE OPTIMALITY OF THE KLAIPEDA COUNTY LANDSCAPE STRUCTURE <p>The aim of this study was to perform an analysis of the optimality of the landscape structure of Klaipeda County. <br />Various scientific methods were used in the study, namely: comparative, grouping, analytical, statistical data, graphical representation analysis. After calculating the formulas, the ratio of relatively natural and cultivated land in Klaipeda County and municipalities was determined, the relative deviation of the landscape structure from the optimal value of the ratio was estimated and the optimality class was determined.</p> <p>The article presents an analysis of the changes in the natural, anthropogenized and anthropogenic landscape of the Klaipeda County during the time period between the years 2002 and 2021. It was found that in the analyzed period the area of natural landscape increased by 4.89 percent, that of anthropogenic - increased by 26.70 percent, that of anthropogenized - decreased by 4.99 percent. Assessing the structure of the county's landscape, it can be seen that in 2021 the largest part of the country's landscape was occupied by anthropogenized landscape (55.45 percent), the smallest - by anthropogenic landscape (6.57 percent), and the natural landscape accounted for 37.98 percent of Klaipeda County’s territory.</p> <p>Calculations were also performed, which established that the ratio of relatively natural land and cultivated land in Klaipeda County R<sub>ns</sub> = 1.65. After estimating the relative deviation of the Klaipeda County from the optimal ratio value (D<sub>r</sub>), it was obtained that D<sub>r </sub>= 1.01, which means that the county's optimality class is A1.</p> Giedre Ivaviciute Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 SOLUTIONS AND EFFECTIVENESS OF WATER PROTECTION STRUCTURES IN FOREST DRAINAGE SYSTEM MAINTENANCE: EXAMPLES FROM LATVIA <p>Drainage system maintenance (DNM) is essential for the main function of the drainage system – to drain excess water ensuring the growth of high quality forest stands. However, it can contribute to erosion and increase the discharge of suspended solids and nutrients from drainage network catchments. To avoid deterioration of water quality, water protection structures should be constructed while carrying out DNM. This paper presents preliminary effectiveness assessment of a custom sedimentation pond sized according to catchment area and the first peak flow control (PFC) structure built in production forests in Latvia. We compared changes of various chemical and physical parameters in periods before and after construction of water protection structures as well as evaluated the effectiveness of the structures during DNM. Slight increase of pH, N-NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>, N-NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup> as well as slight decrease of P-PO<sub>4</sub><sup>3-</sup> and DOC was observed after DNM in affected sites. Sedimentation pond and PFC structure proved their effectiveness in reducing concentrations of suspended solids (by 62% and by 65% respectively). Retention of nutrients in the structures was not significant, furthermore, mean nutrient concentrations during sampling period in all study sites were generally low. As nutrient accumulation by the living vegetation (that is not yet developed) is an important facet of the nutrient retention, sampling and assessment of effectiveness of the constructed water protection structures is still ongoing. In addition, study is being continued to further assess DNM impact on water quality.</p> Zane Kļaviņa, Ivars Kļaviņš Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 THE USE OF FIBROUS PLANTS IN THE PRODUCTION OF BUILDING MATERIALS <p>Concrete development has gone so far since the revolution of human kind. Climate change, energy conservation, and life cycle examination problems are majors that have accorded to the quick augmentation of plant-based materials for buildings, which can be entitled as environmental and eco friendly, enduring and efficient multidisciplinary materials. Recently, several approaches are in action in order to develop concrete materials that are environmentally friendly. The aim of this work is to estimate the suitability of Hemp, Nettle, <em>Artemisia vulgaris</em> and <em>Sida hermaphrodite</em> plants for production of building materials. The tasks of this research are to calculate density, compressive and bending strength and insulation of the concrete with Hemp, Nettle, and Artemisia vulgaris and Sida hermaphrodite fibres. The main objective of this research is to check the possibility of replacing the concrete that has been in use till date now with the major focus on decreasing the emission of the carbon dioxide and developing environmental friendly concrete for future. The results of the research carve the path for further research in future. Artemisia vulgaris concrete is strongest but not enough for structural material. Further research on these plants is highly essential as they can be the base for the replacement of cement concrete and making world a better place by developing the eco-friendly concrete.</p> Roshan Khadka Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 GREENHOUSE GAS MITIGATION POTENTIAL OF FOREST BIOFUEL ORIGINATED IN LATVIA <p class="Abstracttext"><span lang="EN-GB">Latvia is one of the largest exporters of pellets in Europe, and at the same time share of biofuel in energy production in Latvia is also one of the largest between the developed countries. Rapid increase of biofuel production and export raises questions about sustainability of forest sector and contribution of the forest biofuel produced in Latvia to the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance in Europe. Sustainability of forest biofuel is broadly discussed issue in Baltic states; particularly, due to continuous increase of production and export of wood pellets. GHG mitigation potential of the forest biofuel is one of the sustainability aspects surrounded by multiple speculations, which has to be addressed by comprehensive comparison of GHG fluxes due to production and use of forest biofuel and substituted fossil fuel. Assessment of the GHG mitigation potential of forest biofuel is complex process requiring multiple activity data and assumptions. Particular complexity of calculation is determined by the need to use harmonized approach for the whole calculation period. The assessment of the climate change mitigation in this study is based on the methods applied in National GHG inventory and literature data on GHG emissions due to production and delivery of substituted fossil fuel and forest biomass including demolition wood. According to the study results substitution effect of the forest biofuel in Latvia continuously increases since 2000, mainly due to export of biofuel, reaching 14323 Gg CO<sub>2</sub> eq. in 2020 (by 30% more than the net GHG emissions in Latvia in 2019). Electricity production in pellet factories, in spite of major reduction of GHG emissions in the production process, has minor role in the total substitution effect.</span></p> Ieva Līcīte, Kristaps Makovskis , Santa Kalēja , Agris Zimelis, Jordane Champion, Andis Lazdiņš Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BIOGAS INDUSTRY OF LATVIA <p>Biomass and biowaste could be processed into biogas, which, in turn, could be used to generate electrical and thermal energy. Agriculture, especially livestock farming, has significant potential for bioenergy production, mainly due to its relatively low cost. In 2020, 52 biogas plants operated in Latvia, which sold the produced electrical energy under the mandatory procurement scheme (MP). The biogas plants consumed inputs from agriculture, landfills and water treatment facilities. The use of biogas for energy production should be encouraged, as the inputs – waste –, which the biogas is produced from, are used efficiently. By supporting waste processing and energy production in Latvia, the country’s independence from fossil energy sources could be increased, as well as the proportion of renewable energy sources in final energy consumption would increase by 50-70% by 2030 compared with 1990. Accordingly, the present research aims to analyse the performance of the biogas industry of Latvia. The research concluded that since 2017 when the largest output of electricity was reported in Latvia (7.35 TWh (Terawatt hours)), the output has continued decreasing every year, including the electricity produced from renewable sources and by biogas plants. In the period 2016-2020 in Latvia, the average proportion of electricity produced by biogas plants in the total electricity output was 5.36%. In 2021, 46 biogas plants sold electricity under the mandatory procurement scheme, which was 6 plants fewer than in 2020; therefore, this proportion decreased to 3.63%. The performance of biogas plants in the first half of 2021 was lower and significantly lagged behind that in 2020, which was a result of significant amendments made to the legal framework at the end of 2020 regarding the efficiency of cogeneration plants. Consequently, the biogas plants diversified their operations or stopped production, and it could be expected that in 2021 the amount of electricity sold under the mandatory procurement scheme would decrease by at least 20%.</p> Janis Millers, Irina Pilvere Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 REDUCING THE NUMBER OF UNSCHEDULED REPAIRS OF TRACTION GEAR OF EMU TRAINS BY INTRODUCING MODERN TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS <p>The purpose of this article was to find a solution to the problem of reducing the number of the electric multiple unit (EMU) trains traction drive unscheduled repairs due to the breakage of the M24 bolts of the rubber-cord coupling. For these purposes, it is proposed to develop a device that allows accumulating and transmitting data of the impact forces perceived by the bolts of the rubber-cord coupling and whereby reduce the number of unplanned repairs, as well as the associated rolling stock maintenance financial costs for the JSC «Pasažieru vilciens» railway undertaking. The article presents the initial concept of the design development for a device based on the piezoelectric effect, which will make possible to determine the impact force acting on the M24 bolts of the rubber-cord coupling. The data on the minimum breaking force P were taken based on the results of determining the shear stress [τ] - on the shear acting on the M-24 bolts of the rubber-cord coupling fastening. Using the electronic modules included in the designed device, it is planned to provide storage and transmission of information with the further possibility of its processing by a developed PC software or mobile application. However, such devices have a significant drawback - a high development price. For this reason, in order to obtain economic viability, the challenge is creating a device, which cost is limited to 50 Euros. Putting this device into operation would reduce the number of unscheduled repairs therefore reducing the costs experienced by the JSC «Pasažieru vilciens».</p> Fjodors Mihailovs, Janis Eiduks, Dmitrijs Gorbacovs Copyright (c) 2022 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 DEVELOPING AN OPERATION STRATEGY FOR A HYBRID DIESEL-WIND-PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM USED TO POWER AN AUTONOMOUS AND REMOTE FISHING POND <p>The off-grid hybrid energy systems have become a viable sustainable alternative for supplying with energy isolated autonomous farms, being more reliable options, since they have more than one electricity generation sources. This article addresses the challenges related to the configuration of a hybrid energy system composed of a wind turbine, photovoltaic panels, a diesel generator and rechargeable battery storage, which is associated with an autonomous off grid fishing pond. The first step in designing predictive control was to define consumers, their particularities in operation, and their energy demand model, then to estimate the real potential of producing renewable energy depending on the location and to create consumption models that maximize the use of power from renewable resources.</p> <p>A consumption management strategy has been developed for an autonomous and automatic fish pond management system, identifying optimal energy requirements for the proper operation of the needed equipment. In order to operate as much as possible using the regenerative energy resources, a prioritizing energy consumption pyramid was designed and tested and a more efficient technique of allocating energy within 24 hours of operation was defined.</p> Florin Nenciu, Iulian Voicea, Valentin Vladut Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 MANAGEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL POST-PRODUCTION RESIDUES FOR ENERGY PRODUCTION IN RURAL AREAS - A CASE STUDY <p><strong><sup> </sup></strong>The paper shows - from the point of view of the need to increase the share of energy obtained from renewable sources, examples of "good energy practices" for four locations. This goal is primarily related to the reduction of climate changes caused by high GHG emissions - but also fits in the "zero waste" strategy in the case of using post-production biomass as an energy source. Examples are described showing four RES installations in operation - two at the farm level and two at the municipal level. The data for the individual installations are summarized. All the described installations are located in north-eastern Poland - in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. Biogas installations in two farms are described - one micro installation and one large. A large installation has a power of 0.999 MWe and 1.1 MWt, and a small one – 11 kW of electric and thermal power. In the case of a large biogas plant, the investment cost for W is 21% of the investment cost for a micro biogas plant. Operating costs of biogas plant operation in relation to the installed capacity - micro-scale biogas plants are only 59% of costs for a large biogas plant. It was shown how a particularly large biogas plant can cooperate with the local community - by distributing heat from cogeneration to the municipal heat network. On the other hand, two municipalities that have invested in ecological heat sources are described. In one case, it is biomass-fired boilers - providing some of the residents of the commune and communal buildings with domestic hot water. and central heating - and in the second - installation of heat pumps to cover the needs of the municipal school. These examples show that it is possible to implement such solutions. At the same time - local communities, which are often opposed to investing in renewable energy source (RES) in their vicinity, should be made aware of what social, energy and general benefits are associated with such solutions. Due to the calculated factor of 0.2% of biogas installations in relation to the number of potential farms where such installations are possible and justified - the promotion of such "good energy practices" is absolutely necessary.</p> Maciej Neugebauer, Janusz Gołaszewski, Wojciech Miąskowski Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 UPTAKE OF HEAVY METALS BY VEGETABLES GROWING ON SEWAGE SLUDGE <p>Concentrations of the investigated heavy metals in the representative samples of vegetable growing media differed significantly – the highest concentrations were in the root zone of pumpkin, and the lowest – in the root zone of tomato. Only cadmium exhibited higher concentrations in the root zone of pumpkin and zucchini exceeding maximum permissible limits according to LAND 20-2001. Concentrations of all other metals in the root zone of the investigated vegetables were below limit values valid for the 1st category sewage sludge. Mean concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the root zone was quite different for the three selected plant species, but comparably high bioavailable concentrations of the primary plant nutrients showed potential for this sludge to be used in agriculture or forestry. Concentrations of Cr, Ni and Pb in the sewage sludge were far below the critical range, while Cd, Zn and Cu concentrations were within the range or even above critical soil concentration values suggested in the reviewed literature. While average heavy metal concentrations in different parts of the investigated vegetables (pumpkin, zucchini and tomato) were much lower than the suggested critical ones, and was within the range (Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni) or even lower (Cd and Pb) than normal HM level in plants. Concentration of all of the investigated heavy metals was significantly lower in vegetable fruits than in the roots and no metal accumulation in the vegetable biomass (roots as well as aboveground parts) was observed – all accumulation coefficients were below unity.</p> Valdas Paulauskas, Alfreda Kasiuliene Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 MICROWAVE ENHANCED CHROMIUM EXTRACTION FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE AND SOIL-SLUDGE MIXTURES USING BIODEGRADABLE CHELANTS <p>Microwave enhanced chromium extraction from sewage sludge and soil-sludge mixtures was carried out using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and more biodegradable chelating agents: methyleneglycinediacetic acid (MGDA), S, S’-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) and S-carboxyl-L-cysteine (SCLC). Raising the temperature using microwave energy had particularly strong effect on Cr extraction efficiency with MGDA from all the investigated biosolids. The higher was the temperature, the larger amount of metal was extracted – maximum removal efficiency with MGDA at 150<sup>o</sup>C was 38 times higher than that at 20<sup>o</sup>C. The effect of microwave-assisted extraction duration was also significant – extraction effectiveness increased by 40-60 % at 150<sup>o</sup>C while increasing duration from 15 min up to 60 min, depending upon the type of biosolid tested. MW-enhanced chromium extraction efficiency from sludge mixture with clay soil was in all cases significantly lower than that from the raw sludge samples as well as sludge mixture with sandy soil. Extraction study showed that such readily degradable agents as EDDS and MGDA can be successfully used to wash biosolids in the presence of chromium contamination instead of persistent EDTA when microwave energy is applied, while SCLC was less efficient. According to the complexation efficiency, the investigated chelants can be ranked in the following order: EDTA≈MGDA&gt;EDDS&gt;SCLC, while the overall chromium removal capacity of MGDA was better than that of EDDS.</p> Valdas Paulauskas, Ernestas Zaleckas, Dovile Tumosaite Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 FIELD STUDIES OF TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN A STRAW BUILDING WALL <p>It is proven that human construction activities affect the environment negatively. The threat of global ecological disaster is one of the most important factors, appearing due to unbalanced human activities and insufficient use of natural resources.</p> <p>In Lithuania there are building materials (bricks, concrete, reinforced concrete and other materials) used for construction of buildings that require a lot of energy. Prices of energy grew up several times in recent years, so the prices of construction materials significantly increased.</p> <p>It is suggested to use more local building materials produced with low energy consumption. The usage of local, renewable raw building materials can reduce CO<sub>2</sub> emissions, ambient air pollution. The use of straw bales as construction material has many advantages. Pressed straw can be used as a natural heat insulating material in the construction of buildings in Lithuania, as it does not contradict the essential requirements of the construction of buildings specified in the Law on Construction and other normative documents. The aim of this study is to evaluate the temperature distribution of the wall of a built building made of straw bales during the cold period of the year. Temperature data loggers with thermocouple sensors were used to record the outdoor air, indoor and wall temperatures. Measurements of the temperature of the wall frame of the building filled with straw showed that the temperature field of the wall is in a constant dynamic state. It was found that the temperature of the individual layers of the walls of the building filled with straw varies tendentiously depending on the outdoor air temperature.</p> Dainius Ramukevičius, Raimondas Šadzevičius, Rytis Skominas, Vincas Gurskis Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 PROGNOSIS OF DURABILITY OF CONCRETE BY EVALUATING FREEZING AND THAWING CYCLES <p>Hydraulic structures are exploited in hard environmental conditions (impact of freeze-thaw cycling, ultraviolet, humidity and drying, acidity or salinity of water, abrasion etc.), so due to the impact of environmental factors some deteriorations will occur. The repeated cycles of freezing and thawing have significant effects on durability of concrete. They reducing durability, because of cracking and scaling of concrete. Using the research results of investigated hydraulic structures concrete average compression strength <em>f<sub>ck</sub></em>, water absorption by weight <em>W<sub>m</sub></em>, by formulae (1, 2) were calculated numbers of laboratory freeze-thaw cycles <em>n</em><sub>50, </sub>freeze-thaw resistance of concrete rate <em>F</em><em><sub>5 %</sub></em> and from them – durability index – probable deterioration start time<em> T<sub>5 % </sub></em>of investigated main hydraulic structures <em><sub>.</sub></em>( concrete strength <em>f</em><sub>ck</sub> loss in 5 % and 5 freeze-thaw cycles per year).</p> <p>Relationships between shaft spillway or retaining wall freeze-thaw resistance of concrete rate <em>F</em><em><sub>5 % </sub></em>, durability index <em>T</em><sub>5 %</sub><em> , </em>and average compression strength of concrete<em> f<sub>ck</sub></em> were evaluated. These equations may be used for the durability prognosis of existing shaft spillways or retaining walls exploited in hydraulic structures.</p> Raimondas Šadzevičius, Dainius Ramukevičius, Tatjana Sankauskienė, Justyna Dzięcioł, Katarzyna Gabryś Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 METHODICAL OPTIMISATION OF DRIVETRAINS OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY WITH SPECIAL FOCUS ON THEIR ELECTRIFICATION AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY <p>If one looks at the development of the engineering sciences in the past decades under the focus of research, one can get the impression that the engineering sciences are developing more and more in the direction of systematic research of existing objects and facts, possible phenomena as well as functional and effect relationships, which often only leads to incremental progress. In other words, in the way that is characteristic for basic research and clearly predominates in the natural sciences. This "scientification" of the engineering sciences seemes to increasingly limit the scope for pursuing disruptive approaches and developing creative solutions in applied and industrial research. In this context, it is precisely the creative genius manifested in its name that distinguishes engineering from the more formal scientific and basic research-oriented natural sciences, especially physics. The aim of this article is therefore to strengthen the creative genius and to show how the optimisation of drivetrains of agricultural machinery can be methodically supported, especially with regard to their increasing electrification and the need to further improve their energy efficiency. In addition, some examples of the successful drivetrain optimisations are given.</p> Roland Schmetz Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF OPERABILITY OF HARDENED CUTTING EDGES OF PARTS <p>The operability of machine and tool parts is often determined by the state of the working surface. It is on the surface that cracks arise, wear and corrosion processes begin. The presence of defects, the degree and depth of hardening, the level of residual internal stresses, the structure, the nature of the transition to the base material, most often determine the reliability and service life of parts and structures. Based on a critical review of hardening methods, it was found that one of the promising ones is the effect on the treated surface of a plasma jet of different power density. To ensure wear resistance of the working edges, the surface was treated with low-temperature plasma at an indirect arc plasmatron installation. The work investigated the phase and structural transformations after plasma coating on model samples of steel 65G, studied the structure and built microhardness profiles. Optimal parameters of plasma processing of articles are determined: distance from plasmatron - 30 mm, rotation speed - 10 s<sup>-1</sup>, heating time - 10 s. The established optimal modes of hardening treatment were used for plasma hardening using the example of an instrument (spiral drills made of steel grades R6M5, R6AM5 and 11R3AM3F2) under production conditions. For all types of drills, it was possible to obtain a hardened layer of 1-1.5 mm deep from the surface. According to the results of metallographic analysis, the microstructure of the hardened layer contained a white, non-etchable in acids zone with a high microhardness of up to 12000 MPa, the depth of which reached up to 0.4 mm; then there was a structure consisting of martensite and residual austenite with a microhardness of up to 9000 MPa. Tests of experimental drills for resistance, carried out in production conditions, showed an increase in their resource by 2 times compared to a tool that did not undergo plasma hardening, confirmed the possibility of multiple regrind within the hardened layer.</p> Olga Sharaya, Alexander Pastukhov, Evgeny Timashov, Dmitry Bakharev Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 POSSIBILITIES TO REUSE A CERAMIC WASTE AS CONCRETE AGGREGATES <p>Every year, huge amounts of natural resources are used to produce concrete. Sand and gravel resources are rapidly draining, therefore, it is necessary to reduce consumption. On the other hand, there are a lot of construction waste which can be reused in concrete production. One of possibilities is to use in concrete production ceramic waste. During the research the coarse aggregates were changed to ceramic bricks waste. The changes of fresh concrete workability, density, hardened concrete compression strength, water absorption and frost resistance were evaluated. The results show that ceramic waste has a negative effect to all concrete properties. Ceramic bricks waste should be used to replace coarse aggregate in a lower ratio, such as the possible option of replacing 10 % of coarse aggregates. The stoneware tiles waste show better results (Skominas et al., 2020). This waste can be used replacing up to 60 % concrete coarse aggregates. According to all results can be concluded that stoneware tiles waste is better choice for coarse aggregates production.</p> Rytis Skominas, Wojciech Sas, Andrzej Głuchowski, Raimondas Šadzevičius, Dainius Ramukevičius Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 USING DISTANT MONITORING METHODS FOR THE CULTIVATION OF CANNABIS <p>Plant monitoring with the use of distant methods is a way of acquiring the data necessary to operate modern technological systems. The development is moving towards a wider range of observed parts of the wave spectrum. The quality of vegetation and soil monitoring devices is increasing. This is associated with a higher purchase price. Operating costs are also higher. The requirements for the processing of acquired records and their interpretation are also more demanding. The complexity of connecting the obtained data with practical applications in real operation is also increasing. On the contrary, the possibility of using simpler equipment and simple evaluation of the obtained data means lower costs and lower demands on operation and software. The importance of simple monitoring methods also lies in their higher ability to act. Monitoring can be performed at the necessary time and the information obtained can be used immediately for the implementation of agrotechnical interventions. As part of growth experiments on technical cannabis, experimental monitoring using a drone equipped with a standard RGB camera was carried out. It was verified that by employing this fairly easy method, we can differentiate various levels of nitrous fertilization, especially in the red part of the visible spectrum.</p> Jiří Souček, Marie Bjelková, Patrik Burg, Algirdas Jasinskas Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 PERSPECTIVES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TERRITORY IN THE CONTEXT OF TERRITORY PLANNING DOCUMENTS: A CASE STUDY OF MOLĖTAI DISTRICT MUNICIPALITY <p>Territory planning is a rather complex process involving the combination of the necessary economic, social, cultural and ecological policy expressions related to land use policy. This process is quite complex and lengthy due to the large number of interests involved, which inevitably leads to conflicts, inconsistencies in the solutions of territory planning documents at various levels or inconsistencies in the current territory planning situation with the solutions of territory planning documents. The aim of this article is to analyze the development perspectives of Molėtai district municipality territory in the context of territory planning documents. Molėtai district municipality was chosen as one of the research objects as one of the 15 Lithuanian municipalities with exceptional landscape and recreational characteristics. After the comparative analysis of the functional zoning solutions of the general plan (hereinafter - GP) and general plan correction territories of 11 Molėtai district elderships, it was established that no significant changes have been identified in the regulation of the use of the territory. Meanwhile, after analyzing the compliance of the actual land use of the Molėtai district territory with the solutions of the GP correction, land use and protection regulations drawing, it was found that recreational areas around Lake Pagulbis in Alanta eldership are planned, however, according to the current situation the area is dominated by swamps and isolated tree massifs. In the territories of Giedraičiai and Joniškis elderships, according to the solutions provided in the GP correction, the territories are intended for intensive agricultural activities, but they are dominated by forests. The analysis of the development perspectives of the territories of individual elderships revealed that it is expedient to develop intensive agriculture in Joniškis, Balninkai and Alanta elderships. Extensive agriculture - in Balninkai, Alanta and Giedraičiai elderships. Mindūnai, Čiulėnai and Videniškės elderships are promising for the development of forest territories. It is most expedient to develop recreation in Mindūnai, Čiulėnai and Dubingiai elderships. Comparing the obtained results with the GP correction solutions and the actual use of the territories in the area, it was established that at least one of the functional areas of the territories regulated in the GP correction coincides with the actual use of the territories and the territory development perspective. The biggest discrepancy between the regulated, existing and perspective use of the territories was found in Videniškiai, Dubingiai and Giedraičiai elderships. Meanwhile, in Mindūnai, Joniškis and Balninkai elderships, the actual use of territories is regulated in the correction of the GP, most in line with the planned perspectives of territory development.</p> Jolanta Valčiukienė, Daiva Juknelienė, Virginija Atkocevičienė, Edita Juočytė Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 CONSTRUCTION AND APPLICATION OF HIGH ENERGY EFFECTIVITY MOBILE MICRO-ECO-HOUSES FOR RECEIVING PROPHYLACTIC PROCEDURES AND SELF-ISOLATION OF CORONAVIRUS COVID-19 AND OTHER DISEASES <p>The scientific article describes an innovative, high energy efficiency construction solution for mobile wooden frame buildings that can be used for various purposes. An interdisciplinary study of the engineering and medical sciences has been described the influence of prophylactic procedures to the human viral infections, such as Coronavirus Covid-19. The micro-eco-houses are intended for receiving various preventive treatment procedures, self-isolation as well as other needs of a wide profile. In climate conditions, where heat energy efficiency requirements are increased, it is provided that will be used a thick layer of thermal insulation, double window and door design solutions, to reduce heat energy losses and cold bridges impact.</p> <p> </p> Edmunds Visockis Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 WHAT DETERMINES THE FLOWERING OF ASTER L., HETEROTHECA CASS., MIYAMAYOMENA KITAM. AND SYMPHYOTRICHUM NEES GENERA PLANTS? <p>The assortment of ornamental perennial herbaceous plants in Lithuania is growing every year. Spring and summer flowering plants and ornamental plants of the <em>Poaceae</em> family are mainly grown in Lithuania. The first frosts in Lithuania usually occur in September-October, when some plants freeze. The aim of this study was to investigate the assortment of perennial herbaceous plants of the latest flowering family <em>Compositae</em> and what climatic factors influence their flowering time and duration. The research was carried out in Vytautas Magnus University Botanical Garden in 2019-2020.</p> Arūnas Balsevičius, Sonata Kazlauskaite, Indrė Lukšytė, Ričardas Narijauskas Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 N2O AND CH4 EMISSIONS FROM NATURALLY WET AND DRAINED NUTRIENT-RICH ORGANIC FOREST SOILS <p>According to general knowledge rewetting of drained organic soils is a measure that can reduce net greenhouse gas emissions from ecosystem, however there is lack of evidence that approves such an assumption in hemiboreal forests. The aim of the study was to quantify N<sub>2</sub>O and CH<sub>4</sub> flux from nutrient-rich organic soils in naturally wet (NWS) and drained (DS) hemiboreal forest sites in Latvia.</p> <p>In central Latvia, 26 NWS (<em>Dryopterioso–caricosa</em> and <em>Filipendulosa</em>) and DS (<em>Oxalidosa turf. mel.</em>) were selected to evaluate annual N<sub>2</sub>O and CH<sub>4</sub> soil flux by manual chamber method. Gas sampling was performed once a month in five replicates in every sampling plot for period of one year covering all seasons from October of 2019 till November of 2020. During gas sampling soil temperature and groundwater level were measured. In addition, soil and groundwater was sampled and tested.</p> <p>Study results show that soil CH<sub>4</sub> flux has strong correlation with groundwater level and weak correlation with soil temperature in booth DS and NWS. Moderate correlation between soil temperature and N<sub>2</sub>O flux were found in DS, however in rest of the study sites significant impact of soil temperature and groundwater level on N<sub>2</sub>O flux was not found. Estimated annual average soil CH<sub>4</sub> flux is average ‑3.5±1.0 kg C‑CH<sub>4</sub> ha<sup>-1</sup> yr<sup>-1</sup> in DS and average 100.6±101.0 kg C‑CH<sub>4</sub> ha<sup>-1</sup> yr<sup>-1</sup> in NWS. While estimated annual average soil N<sub>2</sub>O flux is average 1.1±0.4 kg N‑N<sub>2</sub>O ha<sup>‑1</sup> yr<sup>-1</sup> in DS and 2.6±0.9 kg N‑N<sub>2</sub>O ha<sup>-1</sup> yr<sup>-1</sup> in NWS.</p> Aldis Butlers, Arta Bārdule, Gints Spalva, Edgars Muižnieks Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 PINUS SYLVESTRIS L. NATURAL REGENERATION AFTER GRADUAL CONTINUOUS FELLING IN VACCINIOSA, MYRTILLOSA AND HYLOCOMIOSA <p>Natural regeneration takes place with those tree species that have long adapted to the given conditions. The study analyzed six Scots pine stands in <em>Vacciniosa</em>, <em>Myrtillosa</em> and <em>Hylocomiosa</em> forest types. Sample plots (500 m2) were established five years after the gradual continuous felling. The aim of the study is to assess the natural regeneration after the gradual continuous felling in 2014 in the <em>Vacciniosa</em>, <em>Myrtillosa</em> and <em>Hylocomiosa</em> forest types. The number of Scots pine regrowth trees differs significantly between forest stands (p &lt;0.05), while the average height of trees does not differ significantly between forest types (p&gt; 0.05). The sanitary condition of Scots pine trees does not affect their natural regeneration. The most significant damage is caused by the great pine weevil (<em>Hylobius abietis</em>) and the ungulates (<em>Artiodactyla</em>).</p> Edgars Dubrovskis, Olga Miezīte, Līga Liepa, Solveiga Luguza Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 MARKET DEMAND AND SUPPLY OF Cordia millenii (ỌMỌ) SAWNWOOD AND ITS EFFECT ON CONSERVATION OF THE SPECIES <p>This study examined market demand and supply of<em> Cordia millenii</em> (Ọmọ) Sawnwood in Bodija sawnwood market so that stakeholders involved in the economies of the sawnwood will make appropriate economic decisions thereby ensuring sustainable utilization of the species. Bodija sawnwood market is made up of nine zones comprising 66 blocks and 1868 stalls. Five zones were purposively selected based on the abundance of Ọmọ sawnwood marketers in the zones. Simple random sampling was then used to select 40 respondents in each zone. Structured questionnaires were used and data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Respondents (89.5%) were male, 75% were between the ages of 30 and 49 years, 97% had formal education and 70.5% had been involved in the sawnwood trade between 10 to 29 years. Respondents (96.5%) stated that there has been a steady increase in the market demand and supply of the sawnwood over the years. Respondents (85.5%) claimed timber were gotten from government forest plantations. Strength (37.5%), hardness (15%), durability (26.5%) and appearance (21%) were identified as the major attributes influencing market demand of the sawnwood. High demand by consumers (76%) and season (23%) were factors influencing the market supply of the sawnwood. Poor infrastructure and unreliable institutional mechanisms (31%) were identified as challenges encountered. Market demand and supply of the sawnwood has been on the increase due to its ubiquitous nature. It is therefore recommended that forestry stakeholders should make a deliberate effort in the sustainable conservation of indigenous tree species through afforestation and reforestation programmes.</p> Oyinlola Fasoro, Opeyemi Ajewole, Adeola Adeniran Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 HEAVY METAL TOLERANCE AND ACCUMULATION POTENTIAL OF COASTAL ACCESSIONS OF TRIFOLIUM FRAGIFERUM, A PROMISING FORAGE SPECIES <p>The aim of the present study was to examine heavy metal tolerance of different wild accessions of strawberry clover,<em> T. fragiferum</em>, a promising forage species, in comparison to a commercial cultivar, and to find out if there is a tendency to accumulate heavy metals in above ground parts of strawberry clover plants. Seeds from four geographically isolated wild populations of <em>T. fragiferum </em>in Latvia as well as cv. 'Palestine' were used to establish experiment in controlled conditions using substrate gradient of Cd and Pb. Similar to closely related species <em>T. repens, T. fragiferum</em> showed high tolerance to heavy metals Cd and Pb and excluded heavy metals from above ground parts. Some physiological differences were evident in respect to morphological responses of different accessions to the two heavy metals as well as regarding heavy metal accumulation potential in different plant parts. It was concluded that when cultivated in unpolluted soils, shoots of <em>T. fragiferum</em> can be considered safe as forage for animal consumption.</p> Gederts Ievinsh, Andis Karlsons, Astra Jēkabsone, Una Andersone-Ozola Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 COVID-19-INDUCED CHANGES IN OUTDOOR RECREATION HABITS IN LATVIA DURING WINTER HOLIDAY SEASON OF 2020/2021 <p>In Latvia, with 53% of forest cover, many forest areas are favoured destinations for outdoor recreation in every season. Winter holiday season of 2020/2021 in Latvia coincided with strict lockdowns when normal everyday routines of most people were significantly disrupted due to COVID-19 pandemic, that likely changed outdoor recreation habits of people in scale, frequency and temporal distribution. Therefore, in the beginning of 2021, based on a representative sample of inhabitants of Latvia, we conducted a survey with questions pertaining to winter outdoor forest-related activities in general, as well as several traditional and popular activities that people often conduct specifically in Christmas and New Year holiday season, like collecting of Christmas trees in the forest, feeding wild animals, collecting materials for house decorations. These activities are often pursued together with friends and family, thus providing also socialization opportunities, an important aspect during lockdowns. The paper presents results concerning the frequency of forest visits, compared to pre-COVID-19 situation, the types of recreational areas favoured, as well as the observed changes in these areas.</p> Edgars Jūrmalis, Arta Bārdule, Zane Lībiete Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 GENETIC DIVERSITY AND PARENTAGE ANALYSIS FOR DNA MARKER-BASED FOREST REPRODUCTIVE MATERIAL TRACEABILITY SYSTEM IN LITHUANIA <p>Scots pine is economically and ecologically important forest tree species in Lithuania. According to the Regulation of Forest Planting and Restoration of Lithuania (2018) and the Regulations on Forest Reproductive Material (FRM) (2017) forests must be planted and replanted with the target tree species, using high quality seeds and seedlings from a given provenance. EU Council Directive (1999/105/EC) indicates that EU Member States are responsible for the regulation, requirements and implementation of FRM quality and traceability system. The existing FRM control system in Lithuania is based on the control actions of the supporting documents regarding the origin of FRM. However, this FRM traceability system is limited and, in some cases, cannot ensure that FRM used for reforestation/afforestation originates from the declared place of origin or belongs to a certain seed or plant lot. In this study we aimed to assess and compare genetic diversity of scots pine seed orchard clones with seeds, and to test DNA based parentage analysis methods with Jonava scots pine seed orchard clones and seeds. Up to now DNA markers based FRM traceability system in Lithuania has not been tested and implemented. Thus, our first results based on 12 nuclear microsatellite markers indicated that genetic diversity among Jonava seed orchard clones and collected seeds were moderately high and comparable with other studies on scots pine in Europe. The test of the maternity analysis software CERVUS has showed very positive results in maternity assignments. Therefore, selected microsatellite markers in combination with accurate sampling design and specific DNA analysis methods should be improved and can be used for FRM traceability system based on DNA “fingerprints”.</p> Darius Kavaliauskas, Barbara Fussi, Monika Sirgėdienė, Rūta Kembrytė, Darius Danusevičius Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 INNOVATIVE BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS IN ORGANIC BEAN GROWING TECHNOLOGY <p>The application of microbiological products in agriculture is becoming more and more relevant nowadays in order to reduce the use of chemical products. These products have the potential to protect plants from diseases, pests, increase yields and improve quality and are friendly to the environment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the innovative biological product Sporeplus on bean growth and productivity, to evaluate the impact of the product on the prevalence of diseases. The study was carried out at Vytautas Magnus University Botanical Garden. Beans of 'Tiffany' and 'Bobas' varieties were studied by applying the microbiological product as a seed treatment and spraying the plants during vegetation with a product suspension. The highest average bean height was defined in both 'Bobas' (significantly) and 'Tiffany' (insignificantly) varieties sites, where bioproduct Sporeplus was applied for both seed treatment and for later plant spraying during vegetation. Significantly the highest average seed weight per plant was determined in beans of the 'Tiffany' variety, where the seed was treated by bioproduct and also the plants were sprayed with the microbiological product Sporeplus during the vegetation period as well. The average seed weight per plant of the 'Bobas' variety was also the highest (insignificantly) where both the seed and later the plants were treated with the microbiological product Sporeplus. The prevalence of bean rust (<em>Uromyces fabae</em>) was not significantly affected by the application of the microbiological product Sporeplus.</p> Sonata Kazlauskaite, Ilona Vagusevičienė, Audronė Žebrauskienė, Kimete Lluga Rizani, Elena Survilienė Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 DEVELOPMENT OF YOUNG STANDS AFTER WHOLE TREE HARVESTING AND WHOLE TREE HARVESTING COMBINED WITH STUMP BIOMASS EXTRACTION <p>Forest management pressures on ecosystems are expected to rise due to increased use of renewable resources and environmental, economic and political reasons. Extraction of nutrient rich logging residues from felling sites has become a common practice, therefore risks of negative impact on the nutrient cycling as well as site future productivity must be assessed. To evaluate effect of whole-tree harvesting (WTH) and whole-tree harvesting combined with stump biomass extraction (WTH+SB) on productivity of next rotation young stands measurements were carried out in eight sites for four to six years in typical forest site types in Latvia (<em>Oxalidosa turf. mel</em>. – eutrophic peat soil site; <em>Hylocomiosa</em>, <em>Oxalidosa</em> – mesotrophic mineral soil sites, <em>Mytrillosa</em> – oligotrophic mineral soil site). Harvesting in the sites was carried out in 2012-2013 and regeneration was carried out after one to two years with Scots pine (<em>Pinus sylvestris L.</em>), Norway spruce (<em>Picea abies L.</em> (Karst.)) and black alder (<em>Alnus glutinosa L.</em> (Gaertn.)). Comparing conventional harvesting or so-called stem only harvesting (SOH) to WTH no statistically significant differences were observed regarding tree height, but in eutrophic Norway spruce site WTH plot smaller stem diameters were observed. Comparing WTH to WTH+SB statistically significantly higher Norway spruce and black alder heights in mono-stands were observed in WTH plots, while no significant differences were detected in Norway spruce and black alder mixed stand. No explicit differences were found regarding height/diameter ratio between WTH and WTH+SB treatments.</p> Ivars Klavins, Zane Kļaviņa Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 REDUCTION OF WOOD BASIC DENSITY IN DECAYED GREY ALDER STEMS <p>This pilot study aims to estimate the impact of the internal stem decay on wood basic density in grey alder stems. Accurate estimates of stem biomass are crucial in reducing the uncertainty in the estimation of forest stand biomass. The density data were obtained from 21 decayed trees and from 15 healthy trees as reference sampled in five forest stands in Latvia. In total, the densities of 401 intact wood, 212 discoloured wood and 117 spongy rot specimens were measured obtained from the cross-cut discs of sampled trees. The Kruskal Wallis test was used to determine the statistically significant differences between mean values of intact wood, discoloured wood and spongy rot basic density. Our analysis revealed that mean basic density of intact wood differed significantly (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.01) from the mean values of discoloured wood – 361.3 kg m<sup>-3</sup> and spongy rot – 240.9 kg m<sup>-3</sup> suggesting that decrease in wood density due to the internal decay must be taken into account for the stem biomass calculations. Our findings indicate that spongy rot incidence varied strongly between individual forest stands, from 2.4% – 80.9%. Other studies have confirmed that not only the density but also the carbon content of wood varies by its decomposition process.</p> Jānis Liepiņš, Alise Bleive, Andis Lazdiņš, Kaspars Liepiņš Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 AGRICULTURE LAND AFFORESTATION WITH FAST-GROWING WOODY CROPS: ECONOMIC EVALUATION ACCORDING TO YIELDS OF PREVIOUS EXPERIMENTAL TRIALS <p>European Union (EU) aims to increase the share of renewable energy in total energy consumption in the next decades. The main renewable resource, which is mentioned in the policy documents, is biomass, especially wood biomass. Wood biomass for energy purposes could be successfully acquired from fast-growing woody plantations, growing on non-used agricultural lands. In Latvia, in 2019 were around 250 000 ha non-used agriculture land and part of it could be used for plantation growing. In Latvia, suitable woody species for use in plantations are willow, hybrid aspen, and grey alder. For economic calculations plantation site preparation before planting, planting, management, and biomass harvest costs were calculated, as well as revenues from selling biomass. In total 7 different plantation models were evaluated. Comparing the economic indicators for fast-growing woody crop plantation models during their cultivation and applying a discount rate of 7.63%, average service costs and product selling prices for the period 2015-2019, and under the existing plantation support system in 2021, intensively managed willow plantations, extensively managed willow plantations and hybrid aspen agroforestry plantations show positive accumulated cash flow. Hybrid aspen woody plantations and plantation forest, and grey alder energy wood and woody plantations show a negative accumulated cash flow, and their establishment in 2021 does not pay off. Factors that mostly affect plantation cash flow and therefore economic return are the biomass selling price and harvested biomass volume.</p> Kristaps Makovskis, Dagnija Lazdina, Dina Popluga Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 WATER BALANCE OF THE CZECH CROP MIX IN 1961 – 2019 <p>Changing climatic conditions raised the question of sustainability of current agriculture practice which is based mostly on the intensive farming. This approach requires high inputs including water. The major part of crop production in the Czech republic is depending on precipitations.</p> <p>The aim of this paper to evaluate precipitation balance for the most common 10 crops planted in the Czech Republic in period 1961 – 2019.</p> <p>To achieve this aim we used the Czech technical norm and so called „optimal rainfalls“ for crop production. These optimized precipitation in planting season should ensure optimal yield for each crop. These optimal values are based on the observed temperatures and soil type and quality. We have calculated the optimal rainfalls for 10 most common crops which represents 94,52 %, resp. 92,8 % of the total crop production in the Czech Republic.</p> <p>The obtained results show deficit of precipitation in the whole observed period, except the years 1965 and 2001. These findings can be interpreted in both ways, precipitations for optimal yield was recorded only in 2 cases out of 59. And at the same time there is a question if the missing precipitation is used from the ground water which increase the problem of droughts of past years.</p> Karel Malec, Gebeltová Zdeňka, Pavel Kotyza, Mansoor Maitah Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 PINUS SYLVESTRIS L. REGENERATION FROM SEED TREES IN VACCINIOSA AND MYRTILLOSA <p>Scots pine (<em>Pinus sylvestris</em> L.) is an economically important tree species in temperate forests, including Latvia. Purposeful selection work has resulted in the provision of faster-growing planting material for forest planting. Natural restoration initially requires less investment, it has several disadvantages. When using this method, it must be considered that the forest stands will have an uneven species composition, the age and height of the trees will differ. The study was carried out in young naturally regenerated stands in <em>Vacciniosa</em> and <em>Myrtillosa</em> forest site type and compared with planted stands The aim of the study was to evaluate the natural regeneration and last 5 year tree height increment of Scots pine regenerated from the seed trees in the <em>Vacciniosa</em> and <em>Myrtillosa</em>, compared to planted stands, as well as to assess the impact of tree health on pine height increment. In total 10 young stands were surveyed, 66 sample plots were established and 704 trees were measured. The area of the temporary sample plot was 25 m<sup>2</sup> with a radius of 2.82 m. Comparing the annual height increases of Scots pine, both in naturally regenerated and planted young stands in <em>Vacciniosa</em> and <em>Myrtillosa</em>, it was found that there are statistically significant differences between forest types, stand origin type, as well as in existing stands in the last 5 years by years (p &lt;0.05). The most significant damage to young pine stands is caused by needle cast, ungulates, and large pine weevil.</p> Olga Miezīte, Edgars Dubrovskis, Baiba Jansone, Linards Sisenis Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 IMPACT OF LITTER TURNOVER ON CARBON CYCLING IN FORESTS WITH DRAINED AND NATURALLY WET NUTRIENT-RICH ORGANIC SOILS IN LATVIA <p>Litter production is a key parameter for estimation of forest soil carbon (C) stock. The aim of the study was to evaluate carbon stock in above and below-ground litter in forests with drained and naturally wet nutrient-rich organic soils in Latvia to improve National GHG inventory and to integrate data into AGM and EPIM models. To estimate C input with tree above-ground litter, sampling of litter was done in 46 research sites in Latvia. A modelling approach based on a literature review was used to estimate C input with tree below-ground litter and litter of ground vegetation. Our study highlights a connection between C input to soil with litter and stand characteristics – stand basal area, stand age and dominant tree species. There is a trend for C input from above- and below- ground litter to increase along with increasing stand basal area. In conifer stands the C input with ground vegetation increased with stand basal area, whereas for broadleaves the trend is reverse. There is still uncertainty regarding C input with below-ground litter and ground vegetation. In order to improve the modeling approach additional data and country-specific models are required.</p> Guna Petaja, Kaspars Polmanis, Linards Krumšteds Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 THE ANALYSIS OF THE DYNAMICS OF TERRITORIAL STRUCTURES OF NATURAL AND ANTHROPOGENIC GEOECOSYSTEMS BY THE METHODS OF VIRTUAL SIMULATION <p>The structure of landscapes morphology of particular territories is characterized by the irregularity and fragmentary nature of landscape structures. The geometrical structure, which is described by some fractal dimensionality, is a generalized common property of different types of natural-territorial geoecosystems. The “supporting framework” of the territory, as its geometric model, was designed on the basis of a geomorphological description of the landscape morphology of a natural-technogenic geoecosystem. The model of the "supporting framework" of the landscape is similar to the real natural-technogenic geoecosystem and preserves its fractal dimensionality, represents the morphology of the landscape structure as well as the influence of zonal factors, geological conditions of landscape formation. The models of the “supporting framework” of the landscape are used as models- simulators of the processes of natural and anthropogenic origin when studying the dynamics of natural-technogenic geoecosystems. The analysis of the dynamics of the “supporting framework” of the natural-technogenic geoecosystem is consigned to the analysis of some virtual structure of a flat rod truss, which is loaded with forces that simulate some anthropogenic effects. This allows to optimize the permissible limits of the impact intensity of the anthropogenic component on the “supporting framework” of the natural-technogenic geoecosystem. The paper suggests a virtual studying of the “supporting framework” of the territory by the method of modeling on the principle of electrical dynamic analogies. Herewith, the currents in the electrical circuit, which simulates the set of structural elements of the “supporting framework” of the natural-technogenic geoecosystem, are analyzed. When being used at a design stage, the suggested methods of analysis allow to optimize the processes of transformation of natural-territorial complexes and ensure the maximum possible level of their ecological safety. The analytical optimization of the alternative variants of transformation of natural territorial complexes allows to reduce the levels of anthropogenic (man-made) impact on them by 15 –20%.</p> Bogdan Sheludchenko, Savelii Kukharets, Jonas Čėsna, Oleksandr Medvedskyi Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 TRANSPIRATION RATE OF SCOTS PINE TREES ON VERY OLIGOTROPHIC SOILS OF NORMAL MOISTURE IN RELATION TO DIFFERENT METEOROLOGICAL CONDITION <p>Continuous monitoring of the tree ring formation and transpiration throughout the year is crucial for understanding the tree reaction to changes in meteorology, and evaluating its adaptiveness to recent environmental changes. Data were collected from four <em>Pinus sylvestris</em> L. trees which sapflow was measured by the heat wave propagation method using SFM1 sensors (ICT International, Australia) and annual tree stem increment by electronic dendrometer DRL26. Investigation was performed in middle age pine stand on very oligotrophic soil. Meteorological data revealed that 2019 was the year of drought. In this year pine transpiration rate and volume increment were the lowest. However, water was used most efficiently, which means that pines needed less water to produce 1 cm<sup>3 </sup>of wood. 2020 was characterized as a year of recovery of moisture regime, when during vegetation precipitation increased up to long term value and the mean air temperature was the lowest. Annaul volume increment of pine trees in this year was the biggest, transpiration rate the highest, but WUE was the smallest, indicating that pine used more water to produce 1 cm<sup>3</sup> of wood. Obtained data on WUE during different growing season revealed that Scots pine trees are well adapted to recent meteorological condition. Increase in tree diameter reduced values of Scots pine WUE, what means that bigger pine trees used significantly less water to produce 1 cm<sup>3</sup> of wood</p> Diana Sidabrienė Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 IMPACT OF ORIENTEERING COMPETITIONS ON GROUND VEGETATION IN PINE FORESTS AT THE SEASIDE, LATVIA <p>Orienteering is one of the most popular folk sports in Latvia, it involves a very large number of participants, and this number is growing every year. While participating in the competition and running through the forest, the competitors are trampling the forest floor. In Latvia, the impact of orienteering competitions has not been studied a lot, therefore when organizing competitions, disagreements arise when choosing the competition area – there are groundless suspicions that orienteering sport has a significant negative long-term impact on the forest floor. The aim of research is to assess the impact of orienteering competitions on ground vegetation in pine forests at the seaside, Latvia. The research was carried out in the orienteering competition “World Masters Orienteering Championships 2019” or “WMOC 2019” competition area, which was located in Scots pine forests in the seaside territory – in the vicinity of Bumbukalns and Garezeri. The study describes orienteering competitions and their process in forest lands; analyzes the vegetation at orienteering competition checkpoints before and after the competition; compares and evaluates vegetation changes in hilly areas on hill tops and in depressions. The study has found that orienteering competitions do not significantly affect the forest layers. It is concluded that as the distance from the control point increases, the trampling intensity decreases. The intensity of trampling does not depend only on the shape of the terrain. The effect of trampling is best seen on the moss layer.</p> Inga Straupe, Ieva Ivbule Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 SOIL PROPERTIES IN SCOTS PINE (PINUS SYLVESTRIS L.) STANDS IN TERVETE NATURE PARK IN LATVIA <p>A research of soil properties was carried out in 2020 in the area of unique old Scots pine (<em>Pinus sylvestris</em> L.) stands in Tervete Nature Park in Latvia. The oldest tree stands reaches age of 180 till 260 years. These are the oldest pine stands in Latvia and in Baltic countries still growing in nowadays. As in the vicinity of Tervete there is a pronounced moraine undulating relief, and the sediments are formed by moraine loam of various thicknesses, then part of the pleasant conditions for pine is already provided in the soil. But still the soils in pine stands of Tervete are poorly studied. <br />In July of 2020 there were soil description in 8 pine stands provided to get the information of most important soil parametres: genetic horizons, texture, percentage of clay content, soil structure, colour, pH, carbonates, percentage of organic matter, sum of adsorbed bases, content of P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> mg kg<sup>-1</sup> of soil. The results of soil analyses were compared to tree stand characteristics. The soil types Cambisol and Arenosol were represented in researched stands. Although the content of calcium carbonates has been considered as an prerequisite of soil fertility, only the part of stands had the carbonates abundant in the soil horizons up to 80 cm. The development of Scots pine stands was found to be equal both in sites with the sand and clay content dominating in the soil.</p> Inga Straupe, Aigars Indriksons, Ieva Erdberga, Anna Duvina Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 AFFORESTATION AS A TYPE OF PEATLAND RECULTIVATION AND ASSESSMENT OF ITS AFFECTING FACTORS IN THE REDUCTION OF GHG EMISSIONS <p>Peatlands play a significant role in the regulation of greenhouse gasses (GHG) by sequestrating carbon from the atmosphere. Unsustainable peat extraction can lead to an increase in GHG emissions. It is important to recultivate the peatland after the extraction of peat so that it does not become an emitter but remains a carbon sink and sequestrator. One of the most effective and suitable types of recultivation in Latvia that also has a positive effect on GHG circulation is afforestation.</p> <p>The aim of the study is to describe afforestation as a type of recultivation and to evaluate its influencing factors in the reduction of GHG emissions in peatlands.</p> <p>The study analyzed the data obtained in the LIFE REstore project which contains measurements of the three main GHGs (CO<sub>2</sub>, CH<sub>4</sub> and N<sub>2</sub>O) and the factors affecting them. The results show that in afforested areas the closest correlation with the amount of emitted CO<sub>2</sub> out of all the analyzed factors is formed by soil temperature. As it increases, so do the CO<sub>2</sub> emissions. As the depth of soil increases, the correlation between temperature and CO<sub>2</sub> emissions becomes closer. In the study areas, regularities that would directly explain the relatively low amount of GHG emissions in the afforested areas were not found among the analyzed quantitative factors.</p> Emīls Mārtiņš Upenieks, Agnese Rudusāne Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 INNOVATIVE FRAME WOOD CONSTRUCTIONS CONCEPT FOR HIGH ENERGY EFFICIENCY ECOBUILDINGS <p>The aims of the research are to investigate the durability and compliance of patented innovative low or zero heat energy consumption buildings constructions by Latvian construction standards. To develop and study high-quality, energy-efficient and long-lasting low-cost eco-buildings construction technology by using locally sourced building materials and involving local labour, using various low-cost recyclable ecological materials and their recycling residues as eco-thermal insulation. Because of the research, it was established that by using building materials of appropriate size cross-section - spruce boards and interconnecting them with screws, it is possible to make a sufficiently strong building construction frame where are in accordance with Latvian construction standards by using a significantly smaller amount of building materials. By filling the frame of the innovative construction building with thermal insulation in the appropriate thickness, it is possible to build up houses with high energy efficiency that correspond to the parameters of low or zero heat energy consumption buildings. In climatic zones, where for buildings have increased energy efficiency and thicker layer of thermal insulation requirements, it is expected that double windows and doors design solutions will be used to reduce heat loss of cold bridges, and the air gap between them increase the energy efficiency of buildings.</p> Edmunds Visockis, Oskars Vitolins, Sandra Gusta, Raimunds Selegovskis Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 FERMENTATION OF MILK WHEY PERMEATE WITH DIFFERENT DAIRY PROPIONIBACTERIA STRAINS <p>This research was focused on whey ultrafiltration permeate (UF) fermentation by genetically unmodified (wild) organisms. We chose five classical Propionibacterium (Prb) strains which are attributed to the dairy subclass. The optimal temperature for Prb growth is around 28-30°C, however, for energy saving purposes the aim of this study was to observe the organic acid, especially propionic acid (PA) and biomass production of the chosen Prb (DSM 20273 Acidipropionibacterium acidipropionici = A, DSM 20272 Acidipropionibacterium acidipropionici = B; DSM 4902 Prb. freudenreichii = E; DSM 20535 Acidipropionibacterium jensenii = J; DSM 20276 Acidipropionibacterium thoenii = T) at the room temperature (22±0.5 °C). As expected, all the strains were able to convert lactose into acid, however, with different efficiency, thus the production of PA by Prb is strain-dependent. The higher productivity of PA was observed in samples with strains T, J, and B in a 26-day period, however, it should be noted that also the strain E showed high efficiency in a shorter (6-day) period. The highest concentration of PA was produced by strain T, and it reached 3.7±0.13 g L-1 within 26-day period. The concentration of the PA produced depends on the duration of fermentation, and on the proportions of other acids produced as well. An individual strain initially can produce PA more slowly than others, but over time can be effective, which may be related to adaptation to environmental conditions. We also observed the presence of background microflora in whey permeates – most likely lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced most rapidly and was the most abundant acid produced from whey UF.</p> Unigunde Antone, Janis Liepins, Jelena Zagorska, Ingmars Cinkmanis Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 IMPACT OF FERTILIZATION ON AGROFORESTRY SYSTEM COMBINING ROWS OF WILD CHERRY AND SMALL-LEAVED LIME WITH PERENNIAL GRASSES AND LEGUMES IN LATVIA <p>Interest in agroforestry as land use practice continues to revive due to it's social, economic, and especially environmental and climate change mitigation benefits. This article encompasses results of productivity of hemiboreal agroforestry system combining rows of wild cherry and small-leaved lime with perennial grasses (<em>Phalaris arundinacea</em> L. and <em>Festulolium pabulare</em>) and legumes (<em>Galega orientalis</em> Lam.). Experimental plot of agroforestry system was established in agricultural land on mineral soil in central part of Latvia in the spring of 2011. Different fertilizers such as by-products of bioenergy production (wood ash, digestate), municipal waste (wastewater sludge) and mineral fertilizers were used to compensate nutrients in the soil and soil buffer capacity. Survival rate of the trees (especially for wild cherry) in agroforestry systems was relatively very low, mostly due to winter frosts and later browsing by hares. Nevertheless, results of our study highlighted that both used fertilizers and interactions between trees and herbaceous plants impact total productivity of system including tree growth, yields of biomass and seeds of herbaceous plants as well as chemical composition of biomass of herbaceous plants. Whereas obtained biomass of herbaceous plants can be used for both forage and energy production purposes, the benefits and risks of fertilization must be assessed on a case-by-case basis depending on the intended use of biomass.</p> Andis Bārdulis, Sarmīte Rancāne, Mudrīte Daugaviete, Santa Celma, Dagnija Lazdiņa Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 PLANT EXTRACTS AS BIOFUNGICIDES AGAINST SOIL-BORNE PATHOGEN ALTERNARIA SPP. <p>In the presence of a warmer climate, increase the comparative abundance of fungal plant pathogens. Many of the most aggressive plant pathogens are soil-borne fungi. <em>Alternaria</em> species threaten food security as the chemical fungicides currently used against them are mostly ineffective because of the acquired resistance to active compounds. Broadleaf plantain (<em>Plantago major</em> L.) and rosemary (<em>Rosmarinus officinalis</em> L.) extracts, obtained by subcritical CO<sub>2</sub> extraction, were tested for their antifungal activity to investigate the possibility of their use for sustainable plant protection. The ability of the two plant extracts to inhibit mycelial growth was studied by <em>in vitro</em> assay on agar medium containing different concentrations of the tested extracts (200-1000 μL L<sup>-1</sup>). <em>Alternaria</em> spp. isolate was transferred on the modified medium to test the extracts antifungal activity by calculating the average colony growth after 5 and 7 days. Results showed that rosemary extract had an apparent reducing effect on fungal growth that was dose-dependent. Because of this, it can be considered a potential alternative natural fungicide to the synthetic chemicals currently used to prevent and control soil-borne diseases.</p> Simona Chrapačienė, Neringa Rasiukevičiūtė, Alma Valiuškaitė Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 ANTIFUNGAL PROPERTIES OF CORIANDRUM SATIVUM EXTRACTS ON FUSARIUM SPP. IN VITRO <p><em>Fusarium</em> spp. cause significant plant diseases and are responsible for food contamination with mycotoxins. Sustainable crop protection relies on a combination of different measures; among others, plants contain bioactive compounds providing antifungal and antimicrobial properties. Coriander seed extracts have a composition rich in fatty acids, sterols, essential oils, polyphenols etc. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the antifungal properties of coriander essential oil and coriander extract on <em>F. culmorum</em> and <em>F. oxysporum</em> f. sp. <em>lycopersici in vitro</em>. The essential oil was obtained by Clevenger apparatus and the extract with the CO<sub>2</sub> extraction method. A potato dextrose agar medium enriched with extracts was inoculated with <em>Fusarium</em> spp. discs, incubated and the radial growth of colonies was measured 3 and 7 days after inoculation. Results revealed that the coriander essential oil had higher antifungal properties on <em>Fusarium </em>spp. than the coriander extract. No radial colony growth of <em>F. culmorum</em> was observed at 1000 µL/L concentration of the essential oil. In contrast, the coriander extract had moderate antifungal properties, which were higher for <em>F. oxysporum</em> than for <em>F. culmorum</em>. Both plant extracts showed potential to be used as antifungal compounds and thus could help to make plant protection more sustainable.</p> Lina Dėnė, Siegrid Steinkellner, Alma Valiuškaitė Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 THE INFLUENCE OF HEAVY METALS ON THE BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF RETISOLS <p>Environmental problems have not lost their relevance for the Non-Chernozem zone of Russia, the southern part of which belong to the Ryazan region, where in a number of areas there is a critical situation of cultural landscapes contamination of with heavy metals. The aim of the research was to assess the influence of multi-level heavy metal contamination of Retisols for the parameters of its phytotoxicity and the activity of soil enzymes. In the model experiment on Retisols, it was shown that the complex effect of heavy metals that are priority for the Ryazan region such as copper, zinc, lead, cadmium, at doses of 1.5 and 3.5 UEC (approximate permissible concentration) reduces the activity of soil enzymes and has a toxic effect on the cereal-legume mixture. In the variant of the experiment with heavy metal content of 0.5 UEC in the soil, the studied elements, mainly zinc and copper, act as chemical meliorants for Retisols depleted with trace elements. The combined effect of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd) in doses of 1.5 and 4.5 UEC is phytotoxic what negatively affects the biometric indicators of the cereal-bean mixture, and also leads to accumulation in the biomass in quantities exceeding the permissible standards.</p> Tatyana Guseva, Yuri Mazhaisky, Veronica Vcherashnyaya Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 COWSLIP (PRIMULA VERIS L.) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION DEPENDENCE ON THE SOIL PROPERTIES <p>It is known that perennial herbaceous plants growing in harsh conditions in unfertilized soils accumulate large amounts of valuable substances. The aim of the study was to investigate the main chemical composition of wild growth cowslip (<em>Primula veris</em> L.) leaves and inflorescences. Plants samples were collected in April–May of 2019 in different regions of Lithuania (area No. 1 and area No. 2). The plant samples were analyzed immediately after harvesting. Dry matter, soluble solids, ascorbic acid content, titratable acidity was determined by standard methods. Total carotenoid content, chlorophyll <em>a,</em> and <em>b</em> were analyzed by spectrophotometer. The total phenolic content was established by using the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent. The amount of crude ash was determined by the dry burning of samples at a temperature of 500 °C. Phosphorus was measured photometrically, calcium content was established according to Commission Directive. The potassium was determined by flame photometry, magnesium, iron, copper, manganese, zinc, and boron contents were identified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results were analyzed by using a two-way analysis of variance. Our research data analysis showed the different chemical compositions of cowslip samples collected from different areas. Higher amounts of dry matter, ascorbic acid, chlorophyll <em>a</em> and <em>b,</em> total carotenoids, and total phenolics were found in the plants from area No. 1. In the plants from area No. 2 were established higher content of crude ash. The amounts of mineral elements in plants varied unequally. The correlations showed the dependence of the chemical composition of cowslip aerial parts on the soil composition.</p> Aurelija Paulauskienė, Živilė Tarasevičienė Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 THE EFFECT OF LONG-TERM CROP ROTATIONS ON SOIL PROPERTIES IN SPRING BARLEY CROPS <p>Intensive farming and short crop rotations have encountered problems of soil degradation. Finding solutions to these problems as well as new challenges requires returning to old farming practices, adapting them to current issues. In 1965, a field experiment (crop rotation collection) was set up at the Experimental Station of Vytautas Magnus University, the significance of which not only did not decrease, but became increasingly more relevant. The object of the research is spring barley crops in cereal, Norfolk, field with row crops, intensive and for green manure crop rotations as well as continuous bare fallow. The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of long-term crop rotation combinations on soil properties in spring barley crops. Crop rotations with perennial grasses or manure fertilization have demonstrated a positive effect on soil properties. Improving the agrophysical properties also improves the biological and chemical soil properties. This tendency becomes apparent in the field experiment carried out for more than fifty years in the same place.</p> Lina Skinulienė, Lina Marija Butkevičienė, Vaclovas Bogužas, Aušra Sinkevičienė, Vaida Steponavičienė Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 THE INFLUENCE OF BIOLOGICAL PREPARATIONS AND THEIR MIXTURES ON SOIL AGROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN WINTER WHEAT <p>Intensive tillage accelerates soil erosion, reduces the content of organic matter and carbon in the soil. Scientists around the world talk extensively about soil conservation policies. The process of accumulation and maintenance of soil organic matter is important for the long-term preservation of agro-system productivity. Crop production technologies applied should increase carbon sequestration in the soil (Kaiser, Kalbitz, 2012; Baumhardt et al., 2015).</p> <p>The study was conducted in 2018–2019 in the winter wheat crop “Sailor”. An experiment with two factors was performed: preparations of biological origin and their mixtures were used with the application of different tillage technologies. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of biological preparations on soil agrochemical properties in winter wheat crop using different tillage technologies.</p> <p>The use of biological preparations and their mixtures, in many cases, increased the content of water-soluble (labile) carbon in the soil comparing compensatory nitrogen 8 kg t of straw, without biological preparations to stimulate straw mineralization . The content of labile carbon was particularly increased by mixtures of two preparations (<em>Ruinex + Penergetic k, Ruinex</em> + <em>Azofix </em>and<em> Penergetic k + Azofix</em>) using both tillage technologies: when applying no-tillage, the content of soluble carbon increased from 2.9% to 12.2%, and when using the mixtures in ploughless tillage – from 1.4% to 10.3. The combination of the three preparations increased the content of soluble carbon by 5.4% more in ploughless technology, in no-tillage – only 0.5%. The use of one-component biological preparations in ploughless tillage also increased the content of water-soluble carbon, and in no-tillage – reduced it but insignificantly.</p> Vaida Steponavičienė, Lina Marija Butkevičienė, Vaclovas Bogužas, Lina Skinulienė, Tadas Kerdokas Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 THE COMPARISON OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS PARAMEATERS OF DIFFERENT WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) VARIETIES <p>Field experiments were carried out at the Experimental Station of Vytautas Magnus University Agriculture Academy in Lithuania (54° 53' 3.26", 23° 50' 33.25") during 2017-2018. Six winter wheat varieties were studied in the experiment: 'Skagen' (control), 'Julius', 'Edvins', 'Artist', 'Aron' and 'Evina', which were sown on September 15. Preceding crop – winter rape. Seed rate – 4.5 million ha<sup>-1</sup>. The aspects of the dynamics of photosynthesis pigments in winter wheat leaves depending on variety is analysed in the article. Physiological activity of the plant, the growth and development are the most important moments decisive the accumulation of these pigments in the plant. Thus, the general condition of the plant might be described by the composition and content of photosynthesis pigments chlorophyll <em>a</em>, <em>b</em> and carotenoids. Spectrophotometric Wettstein method and “Genesys” 6 spectrophotometer were used for determination of the content of photosynthesis pigments (chlorophyll <em>a</em>, <em>b</em> and carotenoids) in green leaf mass in 96 % ethyl alcohol extract.</p> <p>The accumulated amounts of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls <em>a</em>, <em>b</em> and carotenoids) in different varieties of winter wheat leaves differed. Winter wheat variety 'Aron' accumulated the highest contents of photosynthetic pigments during the tillering and stem elongation stages, meanwhile during the heading – anthesis and early milky maturity stages winter wheat varieties 'Artist' and 'Skagen' demonstrated the best results. The LAI of different varieties of winter wheat differed in the field experiment. Significantly higher LAI was defined for winter wheat variety Artist (0.9) after the resumption of vegetation (BBCH 24–27) and for 'Skagen' (4.0) at the end of vegetation (BBCH 70–73). The highest LAI of winter wheat is determined during the heading - anthesis stage (varieties 'Aron', 'Edvins', 'Skagen'). During the growing season, the lowest LAI was observed for winter wheat variety 'Evina'.</p> <p> </p> Ilona Vagusevičienė, Sonata Kazlauskaite, Irena Pranckietienė, Gintarė Sujetovienė, Arvydas Kanapickas, Audronė Žebrauskienė Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 IMPACT OF FISH PROCESSING BY-PRODUCT AMENDMENT ON SOIL PROPERTIES <p>A pot experiment was carried out at the Vytautas Magnus University Agriculture Academy in Lithuania to examine the possibilities of fish processing wastes to improve soil properties. The fish bones powder (FBP) was mixed with the soil, it was placed into the special vegetative pots of 5 l in volume up to the thickness of 25 cm. The soil type was Endocalcaric Endogleyic Luvisol (WRB 2014, update 2015) and according to granulometric composition was medium heavy loam. The experiment has designed in 4 variants and 6 replications. Soil samples were collected from the substrates in the vegetative pots 360 days (twelve months) after the application of fish processing by-products.</p> <p>The results obtained show that FBP application has significantly influenced the increase of organic carbon, available phosphorus, potassium and calcium contents in tested soil. The amount of FBP application didn’t show any noticeable impact on soil pH value, magnesium and sulphur content in medium heavy loam soil. Although the total nitrogen and mineral nitrogen contents have increased in soil a significant changes were found only after use of 6.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> FBP rate.</p> <p>The FBP application has significantly influenced the increase of microbiota abundance, microbial biomass C and microbial biomass N in tested soil. The microbial biomass C and N directly depended on the (FBP) rate.</p> Rimantas Vaisvalavičius, Rūta Dromantienė, Irena Pranckietienė, Jūratė Aleinikovienė Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 The CROP QUALITY ASPECTS OF POTATO VARIETIES AND BREEDING CLONES IN ORGANIC FARMING SYSTEMS <p>One of the indicators of quality is the starch content of the tubers. In order to evaluate the starch content for each genotype, the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics had set up a field trial in organic crop production system with 10 potato varieties and 10 breeding clones. A field trial was carried out in 2018-2020. The aim of the study was to evaluate and select potato varieties and clones with high starch content in the organic farming system.</p> <p>The results proved impact of meteorological conditions on the starch content in the potato tubers. Starch content of varieties and clones varied from 12.68% to 20.63% on average in 3 years, significant impact of genotypes and years were observed (p&lt;0.05). The highest starch content was found in 2019 for the variety ‘Kuras’ (21.32%) and for clones 19922.29 (21.0%) and 2008-6.5 (21.11%), also the following year these clones had a high starch content of (20.9%) and (21.17%), respectively. The high starch content in 2020 was also for the early varieties ‘Monta’ and ‘Rigonda’, ‘Prelma’ (21.17%). In 2018, many varieties and clones had a significantly lower starch content compared to 2019 and 2020 (p&lt;0.05).</p> Lidija Vojevoda, Ilze Skrabule Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Title Pages of Conference Proceedings <p><strong>FOREWORD </strong></p> <p><strong> </strong>We are pleased to present the Proceedings of the 10<sup>th</sup> International Scientific Conference “Rural Development 2021: Challenges for Sustainable Bioeconomy and Climate Change”. The Conference took place in Academia, Kaunas district, Lithuania at the Vytautas Magnus University, 21–23 September, 2021.</p> <p>The 10<sup>th</sup> International Scientific Conference “Rural Development 2019” was the most effective bi-annual platform for the interdisciplinary scientific discussions and the presentations of new ideas for Sustainable Rural Development in the context of research and innovation for Bioeconomy. The Conference brings together scientists, practitioners, policy makers and actors from private sector around the world to share their experience helping countries to provide their citizens with a more competitive economy, more and better jobs and a better quality of life.</p> <p>The topic of the Conference has allowed for the exploration of different aspects of four main areas:</p> <ul> <li>Agro-innovations and Food Technologies</li> <li>Biosystems Engineering and Environment Integrity</li> <li>Multifunctional Approach for Sustainable Use of Bio-Resources</li> <li>Social Innovations for Rural Development</li> </ul> <p>The topic “Challenges for Sustainable Bioeconomy and Climate Change” chosen for the 10<sup>th</sup> International Scientific Conference sparked strong interest among the professional and scientific community and elicited great response to the call for papers. The Proceedings include 78 peer-reviewed papers and contributions from 206 authors. In total we received 83 submissions for the Conference. A selection of papers are available in this volume. The majority of the contributed papers are included as are selected papers from the discussions sessions and have been peer reviewed by two experts.</p> <p>We want to thank Vytautas Magnus University and Lithuanian Ministry of Agriculture for the generous financial support that made the Conference possible.</p> <p> </p> <p>2021, December 31 </p> <p> Editors: assoc. prof. dr. Judita Černiauskienė<br /> Aurelija Markelytė</p> Judita Černiauskienė Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF BIO-BUSINESS MODELS AND JUSTIFICATION OF THEIR MANAGEMENT IMPROVEMENT <p>The management models and concepts that the business applies in its activities determine the decision-making process, work of organization, and other operating principles. In businesses whose activities are complex or specific, i.e. in high value-added bio-businesses, traditional management models are not suitable in some cases - For example Forgo (2004) says that only organizations that are able to turn ideas into products and sell them in a short period of time can develop effectively. In the case of bio-business development, research may take time, but this does not necessarily mean that the company will not develop efficiently.The aim of this study is to perform a comparative analysis of bio-business models and to substantiate the need for their improvement - the management model must be adapted to the size of the company, the nature of economic activity, the external environment. Today’s biotechnology industry also needs to take a more disciplined approach to management processes that go beyond traditional organizational boundaries. The research is based on the analysis, synthesis, systematization and comparison of scientific literature, statistical data and documents. The study found that while there are sufficient prospects for using bio-waste as bio-raw materials and developing bio-businesses in rural areas, existing models may be difficult to adapt from a managerial point of view and should be improved. The most obvious of the issues examined is that there is still a lack of solutions for a more fluent flow of business processes, especially for the adequate use of bio-waste, i.e. so that high added value is obtained from them. It has been found that the use of bio-raw materials for the manufacture of products would not only create high economic added value, but also would build jobs in rural areas. Because the development of a bio-business from idea to final product is a long process that can take decades, such processes require appropriate business models and their management.</p> Judita Astrovienė, Jolita Greblikaitė Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 STRENGTHENING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF THE LOCAL FOOD SYSTEM BY CHOOSING ECO-LOCALIZATION SCENARIO <p>EU institutions and the public are increasingly debating giving priority to regional and local food systems, short supply chains which create opportunities for a healthier lifestyle and the strengthening of the local economy. The aim of this research is to highlight the possibilities of strengthening the sustainability of the local food system by choosing the eco-localization scenario. The research methods: analysis of scientific literature, documents, good practice examples, systematization, parallel method, etc. The eco-localization scenario requires a long-term vision and a "sustainable solutions" approach, the geographical area relies on its producers and consumers, is oriented towards the local consumer, but the openness of the economy is not abandoned. The driving forces that can help to strengthen the sustainability of local food system by choosing the eco-localization scenario were identified: network of local food system objects; short food supply chains strategies: business to consumer (B2C), business to business (B2B) business to government (B2G); cooperation and stakeholders of local food system activities; local food system stakeholders and relationships; conditions for strategic breakthrough in local food system development.</p> Vilma Atkočiūnienė Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 FOOD SELF-SUFFICIENCY IN LATVIA: LOCAL FOOD VERSUS IMPORTED FOOD <p>The issue of food self-sufficiency is becoming topical in cases of military and economic cataclysms. In addition, increasing attention is being paid to environmental aspects, <em>e.g.</em>, reduction of greenhouse gases. These aspects call for research into countries' capacity to provide food for their citizens. Self-sufficiency research began in the early 20th century and continues to this day. However, scientists have no agreement on the methodology according to which the self-sufficiency index is calculated. In this study, the formula for calculating the self-sufficiency ratio was clarified. The goal of this study is to improve the methodology for calculating self-sufficiency ratio. To achieve the purpose of the study, several research tasks have been set: 1) to get acquainted with scientific research on this topic; 2) to theoretically analyse the obtained information; 3) to develop a more precise method for calculating self-sufficiency, which more accurately reflects the proportion of local food in consumption.</p> <p>Available statistical data and a mathematical calculation method were used in this study. Relatively small countries tend to be exposed to external conditions, which is also linked to food self-sufficiency. Therefore, it was concluded that Latvia can supply its society with several types of food products fully. The updated SSR calculation formula provides more accurate information on self-sufficiency and calculates the consumption and export volume dependence on imported products.</p> Aivis Bikernieks Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 FORECASTING THE POPULATION OF RETIREMENT AGE IN RURAL RUSSIA <p>Population aging and an increase in the number of older age cohorts are demographic constraints and barriers to sustainable rural development. Rural areas of Russia have been affected by demographic aging to a greater extent than urban areas; the proportion of the population of retirement age in rural areas is higher than in urban areas. The purpose of the study is a forecasting the rural population of retirement age and changes in the demographic load in Russia. To construct a demographic forecast, the component method was used. The results show that the number of rural population of retirement age in 2020-2029 will decrease by 4.2-7.3% with zero migration and 5.8-8.9% taking into account the scale of rural-urban migration. From 2034, an increase in the number of persons of retirement age is projected. In 2020-2049 the number of rural pensioners will grow in the medium and high scenarios of demographic development by 4.4-5.5%, excluding migration. The article calculates coefficient of demographic load. The analysis shows that the rural population 0-15 years old is steadily declining. At the same time the number of persons of retirement age in Russia is steadily increasing, both in rural and urban areas. The decline in the birth rate has led to a decrease the demographic load coefficient by children and an increase of the old-age dependency ratio. Upcoming demographic changes must be taken into account in the strategic planning and development of regional programs.</p> Tatiana Blinova, Svetlana Bylina Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 LEARNING FOR EMPLOYMENT – ANALYSIS OF THE COMPONENTS FORMING THE SUCCESSFUL PRODUCT INNOVATION IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP <p>Learning for product innovation in sustainable business within bioeconomy rapidly growing context has become one of the most important components of management educational models. Significant public support in EU countries goes to innovation training for companies. At the same time, many failed product innovations are entering the markets. Consumer market measurements indicate that 86% to 94% (Salkovska et al., 2018) of all innovations are commercially unsuccessful. Creating innovation is a resource intensive process. A high innovation failure rate is a significant loss not only to companies, but to the EU economy as a whole and its competitiveness. The high share of commercially unsuccessful innovations in markets points to areas for improvement in existing innovation education models. A better understanding of the components of successful product innovation will help to lead to improved business training models and therefore more productive bioeconomy and sustainability. The research analyses the components of commercially successful innovations. The most important components that determine the success of innovation are related to the consumption of innovation, the ideological values ​​of innovation and the starting positions of innovation. The aim of the study is to identify the key components that make up commercially successful innovations so that they can be given in-depth attention in training models, thus enhancing the proportion of commercially successful innovations among organizations. The study uses the assessment of 63 innovation experts. Quantitative and qualitative methods of secondary and primary data processing have been used.</p> Liga Braslina, Martins Danusevics, Anda Batraga, Aija Legzdina, Daina Skiltere, Jelena Salkovska, Girts Braslins, Vadims Danovics, Daina Saktina Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 TOWARDS A STRATEGIC APPROACH TO RESEARCH AND INNOVATION FOR FOOD SYSTEMS TRANSFORMATION IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE <p>The transformation of food systems is one of the greatest challenges in responding to the challenges facing supply chains and rural economies in European countries. It is also one of the key elements of the European Green Deal and the associated Farm to Fork strategy.</p> <p>The aim of this article is to present the results of a study identifying strategic areas of research and innovation that can contribute to a successful transition towards sustainable food systems. The results of the work of an international team, representing Central-Eastern European Countries (CEECs) and the scientific and administrative sector, indicate the need for fundamental changes on the production side, supply chain, research infrastructure and on the side of society (consumers), the synergy of which will form the basis for the transformation of food systems towards sustainability.</p> Paweł Chmieliński Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 LONG-TERM VISION FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND CRITICAL ENABLERS FOR ACHIEVING IT - CASE OF MAZOWIECKIE REGION (POLAND) <p>Rural areas face significant challenges related to climate and demographic changes as well as green transformation of the economy. First step for such a transition is a long-term vision. Within the SHERPA projects multi-actor platforms were created and they discussed the vision for 2040 for their territories. This participatory process included representatives of science, society, and policy. The participants discussed development challenges, vision and enabling factors for achieving the desirable vision. The aim of the paper is to compare the results of the visioning exercise conducted by the Polish platform located in Mazowieckie region with the results of the other ones and the vision prepared by the European Commission. The results show that the characteristics of a desirable future vision are shared throughout the EU and call for vibrant rural communities and rural attractiveness. Improving availability and accessibility of public and private services as well as digitalization and diversification of rural economy accompanied by a sustainable use of natural resources are key elements of vibrance and attractiveness of rural areas. To achieve this vision not only financial support and more efficient public policies are needed but also greater empowerment of local communities is essential.</p> Paweł Chmieliński, Barbara Wieliczko Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 ANALYSIS OF SUSTAINABLE DAIRY FARMING PRACTICES IN THE EU AND FOREIGN COUNTRIES <p>This article aims to analyse the concept of a sustainable dairy farm and review sustainable dairy farming experience in EU countries. Theoretical aspects of sustainable farming are analysed during the research; namely, the analysis of EU legal, strategic, and other documents is performed; an overview of research, EU reports, and other documents on sustainable farming is conducted as well as an analysis of international experience in assessing sustainable farming systems in the dairy farm is carried out. The most targeted countries leading the dairy industry and their experience are dealt with. Experience of the USA, New Zealand, China, and EU countries (the Netherlands, Finland, Poland) in implementing sustainability principles in dairy farms is viewed. The study revealed that the leading dairy countries pay a lot of attention to implementing sustainability principles in introducing the planned EU strategies and recommendations and being willing to operate competitively in the global market. At the same time, agriculture is aimed to be viewed as an attractive sector for work and to be adjusted to the development of common sustainability strategies of the countries. EU countries are also focusing on research, modernization, and sustainability of the dairy sector.</p> Jolita Greblikaitė, Judita Astrovienė, Rolandas Rakštys Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 THEMING IN SMART VILLAGES CONTEXT <p>The paper discusses the possibility of smart thematic village development and presents the results of qualitative research aimed at determining why some smart thematic villages are developing while others are not. The grounded theory approach was used for semi-structured interviews. This empirical study investigates four thematic villages in Lithuania, which have an official status and are currently operating and one non-developing thematic village. The structured grounded theory (Strauss &amp; Corbin, 1990, Corbin &amp; Strauss, 2015) was employed to analyse the collected data using open, axial and selective coding techniques. The grounded theory of the thematic village development was built around the core category (a critical success factor of the development of a smart thematic village), i.e. weighed involvement of thematic village actors in thematic village activities context. The main condition of thematic village development is context for thematic village actors weighed involvement. This is context for theming, digital solutions to facilitate collaboration, communication, accessibility and problem-solving at various levels in the thematic village. Thematic village actors get involved in thematic village activities only when they have specific context – Global, National, Local institutional, Village Community and Individual. The more favorable the context, the more weighted involvement is and the more benefits thematic village actors and other stakeholders get, the more possibilities they create for sustainable smart thematic village development.</p> Ingrida Kazlauskienė Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 YOUNG FARMER SUPPORT IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC <p>The countryside aging is widely considered European problem. The same could be observed at the level of farms, where in several European countries farming population is getting statistically older. Thus, this paper aims to define the main aspects of the young farmer support policies and programmes applied in the Czech Republic. Also, in addition, we tried to identify policy process which is related to young farmer issues at the level of the EU and the Czech Republic. To achieve this aim we collected the data on the support mechanism related to young farmer (below 41 years of age) mainly from the official European and Czech resources. Based on the results received we can identify large number of resources which are provided to farmers below 41 years of age or individuals starting with farming activities. We identified 2 main instruments – direct payments and investment grants, both sourced from the EU budget. At the level of the policy processes, we identified several organisations involved in lobbying however only one is exclusively oriented to young farmer issues.</p> Pavel Kotyza, David Brož, Karel Malec, Luboš Smutka Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 MEASUREMENT OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE GROWTH OF AGRICULTURE IN TERMS OF TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY <p>The economic growth has resulted in the depletion of natural resources and degradation of ecosystems. Therefore, the environmentally sustainable growth was accepted as a new model for economy. The idea of environmentally sustainable growth has been widely discussed not only by experts in environmental economics, but also in the international and national policy scene. However, the measurement of environmentally sustainable growth still remains a challenge, especially in agriculture. This article aims to provide an overview of detailed information on adaptation of total factor productivity (TFP) for the measurement of environmentally sustainable growth in agriculture. A method of literature overview was used. Our findings indicate that there are different approaches for performing environmentally sustainable growth measurement in agriculture, and the total factor productivity (TFP) and its modifications are most commonly used indicators in last years. Green TFP growth or similar environmentally related its modifications are measured by growth accounting, data envelopment analysis and stochastic frontier analysis methods.</p> Lina Lauraitienė, Vlada Vitunskienė Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 RENOVATION OF MULTI-APARTMENT RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN LATVIA <p>The origin of current climate change (unlike other past climate changes) is the increase in the so-called greenhouse effect. Several atmospheric gases are able to absorb infrared radiation intensively. Such gases are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), water vapour, as well as nitrous oxide (N2O) and other gases. They are permeable to incoming radiation, but block the infrared (heat) radiation reflected from the earth’s surface. These gases are called greenhouse gases. One of the solutions to reduce the greenhouse effect is to implement energy efficiency measures in multi-apartment residential buildings.</p> <p>The total multi-apartment housing stock in Latvia continues to age. Most residential buildings in Latvia were built during the Soviet period (1946–1990), the second largest category – even before the Second World War. Only a very small proportion of buildings have been built since the restoration of the country’s independence. As a result, the overall condition of buildings in Latvia can be assessed as poor or even unsatisfactory. Some multi-apartment buildings are so dilapidated that they endanger the safety and health of both tenants and the surrounding residents. The involvement of apartment owners and managers in the renewal of the housing stock is largely related to financing that they cannot afford to invest themselves. The support mechanism for the renovation of multi-apartment residential buildings is the European Union funds, as well as the Investment and Development Agency of Latvia (LIAA) and ALTUM. In the ALTUM programme, the maximum grant or gift limit is 50% of the total eligible costs, while the other part of the financing is covered through a commercial bank that has a cooperation agreement with ALTUM or the funds or savings of the tenants. LIAA and ALTUM support programmes have different funding models. As a result of the research, it has been proven that the renovation of multi-apartment buildings is a complex, financially expensive and complicated project that cannot be implemented without the European Union co-financing.</p> Intra Lūce, Iveta Amoliņa, Mārcis Neibergs Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 IMPACT OF NITROGEN TAX ON NITROGEN USE IN LITHUANIA <p>The use of nitrogen fertilizers inevitably causes external negative effects that can be mitigated by various means. This study focusses on tax of mineral nitrogen fertilizer. A study “Farmers' Response to Rise in Mineral Fertilizer Price” investigates the potential response of farmers to a possible tax on mineral nitrogen fertilizer use in Lithuania. Used survey method of data collection, therefore, a questionnaire was conducted to ask farmers, how they would adapt their fertilizer practice to a mineral nitrogen fertilizer tax. Research object: the impact of the nitrogen tax on nitrogen use. Research aim: to identify farmers’ response to changed prices for nitrogen fertilizer. Farmer’s responds were used to model the reaction of farmers to a tax. The obtained results showed a negative reaction in terms of mineral nitrogen fertilizer use to the rise in mineral fertilizer price. Furthermore, farmers tended to switch to crops with lower nitrogen fertilizer requirements. Price elasticity of demand for mineral fertilizers founded inelastic.</p> Aušra Nausėdienė, Andreas Meyer-Aurich, Astrida Miceikienė Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 THE EFFECT OF PANDEMIC ON LABOUR LAW <p>Due to the structure of labor law and developing technology and economic interests, flexible working models have become widespread. In many workplaces, the presence of workers in person is no longer compulsory. As a result of the Covid-19 epidemic that threatens our health these days, the need for flexible working models has increased and remote working methods have become mandatory in many areas. In this study, the regulations made with the remote working system and the Covid-19 epidemic were included, the obligations of the employer on occupational health and safety and the changes in the Remote Work Regulation were evaluated. Covid 19 has affected business and labour relations. Different opinions and different legal consequences are put forward regarding the effect of the suspension of the employment contract on the annual leave, severance pay, and notice pay, which are the rights of the worker depending on the length of service. The aim of the research is to identify the effect of virus on labour market. The main research methods: analysis of scientific literature sources; content analysis and other methods.</p> Ozgur Oguz, Dalia Perkumienė Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 THE ROLE OF LOCAL FOOD SYSTEMS IN RURAL COMMUNITIES <p>The aim of the research is to study the role of local food in local economy of rural communities particularly emphasizing support measures for local food producers. The research is based on the literature review and empirical data from three online focus group discussions with representatives of local municipalities, local food producers and their organizations, tourism information centres and researchers. Local food networks diversify rural economy, promote greater economic independence and local potential, improve the area’s image, reduce impact on local environment. Also, consumers become more aware of origin and quality of the products they consume, therefore often choose local products. Local food system involves a number of mutually interacting human and non-human actors. The most important human actors in the local food system are producers, local governments (policy level of the county), state institutions (responsible for normative regulations, control and support schemes at national level), and associations formed by the food producers themselves, which mainly unite producers of specific products or territorial producers close to the territory. Support schemes, legislation, and technological solutions such as websites and cooperation platforms can be considered as non-human actors. Analysis of the focus group results revealed that in part of rural municipalities (rural communities) there are strong support measures and schemes for local food producers whereas in a number of counties cooperation with policy makers and actors from local food systems should be improved. One of the most important missing element in the food system is cooperation and exchange of information.</p> Liga Paula, Dace Kaufmane, Liga Proskina, Kaspars Naglis-Liepa, Karina Beinarovica Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 PROMOTION OF RURAL TOURISM ACCOMMODATION SERVICES SALES <p>The rapid development of rural tourism business is attractive to researchers of various social sciences. Rural tourism is usually studied in the general context of service economics and management aspects, without highlighting the peculiarities, objective and subjective difficulties of sustainable development. Successful business development in rural tourism homesteads is not possible without a good knowledge of its environment evaluation and research-based marketing decisions. The complex process of organizing services requires appropriate strategic steps and is impossible without sales promotion activities. The complex use of advertising, direct marketing, public relations, personal sales, and strategic tools to increase sales stimulates interest and creates a connection between the consumer and the service provider. Rural tourism homesteads often do not have marketing strategies, do not use strategic tools for sales promotion, do not follow the latest scientific insights, therefore homesteads do not fully use their potential. Guidelines for sales promotion of rural tourism accommodation services, stating that homesteads should pay attention to their brand, websites, social accounts, targeted advertising, marketing strategy and the latest scientific literature related to tourism, would be a useful tool to increase homestead sales more effectively. This article aims to reveal the possibilities of sales promotion of rural tourism accommodation services.</p> <p>The main research methods: analysis of scientific literature sources; statistical data analysis; content analysis and other methods. The aim of research – to identify the sales situation of rural tourism accommodation services and to develop guidelines for sales promotion.</p> Dalia Perkumienė, Biruta Švagždienė, Viktė Ažukaitė Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 THE ROLE OF SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SOCIAL INNOVATION IN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT <p>In world economic development, the importance of innovations, including social innovations, is acquiring an increasingly important role. But it is necessary to take different groups of factors into account in the state's innovation policy, is due to the fact that they can both contribute to and hinder innovative development. Social entrepreneurship is an effective tool for solving social problems and contributes to leveling the shortcomings of state management of a market economy. It acts as a connecting bridge between the public and private sectors, while working closely with both. The aim of research is to determine the stimulating and inhibiting factors for the development of social innovations. This research identifies factors and effect of social entrepreneurship and social innovation in regional development. The study uses monographic method, methods of analysis and synthesis, method of scientific induction and scientific deduction. In scope of the research, the author have clarified role of social entrepreneurship and social innovation in regional development, and create classification of financing resources for social innovation.</p> Svetlana Polovko Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 OPTIMIZATION OF INVESTMENT STRATEGY FOR THE ACQUISITION OF MEANS OF MECHANIZATION <p>The aim of the paper is to identify the optimal investment strategy of acquiring the means of mechanization of an agricultural enterprise. A suitable mean to meet the goal is the application of a multiperiodic optimization model, which is designed in the spreadsheet program Excel (including Solver). Objective function is represented by property maximization at the end of considered period via Net present value. The set of restrictive conditions is represented by the balance of production and financial factors, the balance of cost and production indicators, production and credit restrictions, as well as the conditions of securing the company's liquidity in each time period through positive cumulative cash flow and sufficient financial resources to cover capital investment and working capital. The comparison of NPV values ​​of individual variants of optimization models documents the logical consequences of the gradual optimization of plant and animal production, the time of acquisition of mechanization means without and with the limitation of credit resources and the time of loan repayment. The most suitable solution, with additional restrictive conditions for limited credit resources of up to € 50,000 per year, an interest rate of 6% and a repayment period of up to 7 years, is to procure a Vogel-nootHektor plow in the first year, Horch Pronto seed drills in the second, fertilizer spreaders Rauch in the third, a Fendt combine with a rape cutter and a pea straw crusher in the fourth year and a corn header in the fifth year. The resulting value of NPV represents the amount of € 343,922, while the required amount of credit resources in the first year is € 42,595 with a repayment period of 4 years, in the second year € 31,079 with a repayment of 3 years and in the fourth year € 48,284 with a repayment period of 7 years.</p> Jozef Repiský Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 COMPARISON OF FARMS FOCUSING ON PLANT PRODUCTION IN THE PRODUCTION AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC AND LITHUANIA <p>In the World there are almost 609 million farms and from it 90 % of farms are family farms. It means that family farm is typical form of farms in the World. This kind of farms are occupying about 80 % of agricultural land and represent about 80 % of food production in the World. Small farms account for 84 % of all farms worldwide, but in terms of agricultural land, they operate only on 12 % of land, which represents about 36 % of the all food production. From the total number of farms, the largest ones (this represents 1 % of farms) operate on size of 70 % of the World's agricultural land.</p> <p>The aim of this research is to calculate, what is the minimum size of family farm focused on plant production (with typical commodities for both countries) in the Republic of Lithuania and the Slovak Republic. We predict same production and economical condition in both countries. We calculate with situation, that the family farm will achieve minimum revenue for covering their costs and household expenditures.</p> <p>In this paper are used the data on farmers from the Slovak Republic and the Republic of Lithuania from the data of business calculations by Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Development of the Slovak Republic and Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Lithuania.</p> <p>The presented paper calculates with average household expenditures. The valuse of household expenditures in the Slovak Republic are in value 12 795 Euro and average household expenditures in the Lithuania are in value 9 889 Euro. Data are used from both countries statistical offices from the year 2019. These expenditures are calculated for one family farm with 2 adults and 2 kids (as average).</p> <p>The results of the paper proved that, according to the algorithm of an average farm focused on crop production, the farm size of 73.25 ha in the Slovak Republic and 73.01 ha in the Republic of Lithuania of agricultural land needs to have one family farm in each country.</p> Patrik Rovný, Rebecca Brodňanová, Katarína Bírová Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 INNOVATIVE MEANS OF FORMATION OF THE CONCEPT OF ASSESSMENT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE SYSTEM: ENTERPRISE – INDUSTRY – REGION – STATE <p>The subject of the article is the theoretical and applied aspects of assessing the level of achieving sustainable development of the enterprise.</p> <p>The aim of the research is to use innovative means to develop the concept of assessing the level of achievement of sustainable development in the system: enterprise-industry-region-state.</p> <p>During the study, groups of external and internal stakeholders were identified from the position of 3 levels. There is a significant inconsistency of motives of stakeholders in the implementation of the concept of sustainable development at the enterprise level and a diverse vision of the essence and meaning of the term sustainable development of the enterprise. This necessitated the formulation of the concept of assessing sustainable development in the system: enterprise - industry - region - state in terms of external and internal sustainability of development.</p> <p>The obtained results describe a system of indicators of the level of sustainable development in terms of its "usefulness" for the regional and national economy and can be used to develop and implement measures to ensure sustainable development at the individual enterprise, region, industry and state.</p> Yelyzaveta Synetska, Daniela Hupková, Ľudmila Dobošová, Erika Loučanová Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 KNOWLEDGE AND INNOVATION PARTNERSHIPS FOR SMART AND SUSTAINABLE TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT <p>The complexity of contemporary territorial development challenges – such as uneven growth trajectories triggered by monocentric development, social and economic inequalities, depopulation of rural and remote territories, environmental degradation – calls for addressing them in a systemic, multi-level and cross-sectoral manner. Collaborative and participatory approaches are increasingly recognised as a precondition for smart and sustainable territorial development where local resources and digital technologies are employed in ways that stimulate economic growth, increase social integration and wellbeing, and improve environmental conditions. We apply the framework of quadruple helix to explore the role of knowledge and innovation partnerships (KIPs) in three key areas of contemporary territorial development in Latvia, i.e., regional food systems, rural-urban interfaces, and rural digitalisation. The study is based on a review and synthesis of theme-specific results from across 11 national and European projects carried out by the Baltic Studies Centre since 2007, and national expert interviews. The results suggest that KIPs in rural and territorial development contexts have specific constellations and activities both within and across the three areas. It can be more challenging to establish KIPs there than in urban surroundings because of scarcer resources. When established, KIPs allow for pooling resources of different stakeholders for joint practical problem solving. Improved understanding and knowledge of local resources and systems within which those resources circulate, and targeted support for multi-actor knowledge and innovation collaboration within and across territories, including rural-urban ones, are needed to enable KIPs for sustainable territorial development.</p> Sandra Šūmane, Anda Ādamsone-Fiskoviča, Linda Cīrule, Miķelis Grīviņš, Emīls Ķīlis, Marija Stefānija Skudra, Tālis Tisenkopfs Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE SYSTEM AND MECHANISMS TO SUPPORT THE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRI-FOOD EXPORTS IN UKRAINE AND THE EU <p>The role of government programs and measures to stimulate exports is becoming increasingly important in the development strategies of countries, especially developing countries, which seek to make exports the engine of economic growth. At the same time, coordinated institutional work to stimulate exports is considered to be the most important factor to ensure comprehensive diversification of foreign trade activities. For the agricultural sector of Ukraine, the matter of systematic work to support and promote exports is currently extremely relevant.</p> <p>The main research methods within the study are surveys, SWOT-analysis, GAP-analysis, consolidation of information, comparison of export support activities in Ukraine and the EU.</p> <p>The results of the study demonstrate Institutions and Tools of State Export Support in Ukraine and the EU, export-oriented services by of support institutions, export support activities carried out by various institutions, practices on national export promotion activities – comparison of Ukraine with the countries of the European Union (Republic of Ireland, Kingdom of the Netherlands, Federal Republic of Germany).</p> <p>The main conclusions of the study are formed by areas – on the one hand Public Authorities, and on the other for Business Support Institutions, Unions and Associations. The recommendations cover areas such as the general coordination of export promotion programs, building a global network of local offices, access to finance, online services and informational Internet portals, presenting the organization on the Internet, marketing and communication strategies, improving the quality of export support services, providing financial support to enterprises entering new markets.</p> Iryna Tytarchuk, Yelyzaveta Bieliaieva Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 TENDENCIES OF YOUTH SUBJECTIVE WELLBEING ASSESSMENT IN LITHUANIA: TERRITORIAL APPROACH <p>This article represents perceptions of youths’ subjective wellbeing (further SWB) mainly focusing on the evaluations of their happiness and satisfaction with life. Youth SWB is an underdeveloped field of research in Lithuania. It is even more obvious that science lacks research on the SWB of young people based on a territorial approach. Youth SWB research are important because they not only reveal the aspects and problems of the current life of this social group, but also highlights the expectations, fears associated with the future. <em>The research object</em> – subjective wellbeing of youth. <em>The aim of the article</em> is to reveal the attitudes and tendencies of youth SWB in Lithuania by emphasizing territorial peculiarities. The data from European Social Survey Round 9 (2018) were used to assess youth SWB in Lithuania and compared with ESS Round 4 (2008). The sample of the study is young people aged 15 to 29 years. There were used common research methods for this study: comparative analysis, statistical analysis, graphical representation. Research findings support previous scientific works results that youth perceive and value their SWB on the basis of a multiple factors, SWB evaluations differ according to specific age group. The results have shown that the assessment of the SWB of youth following their age groups is not very low and territorial differences are not large.</p> Gintarė Vaznonienė Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 RESEARCH AND INNOVATION AS DRIVERS OF SUSTAINABILITY AND COMPETITIVENESS OF THE BIOECONOMY: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS IN BIOEAST COUNTRIES <p>In the context of climate change, ecological boundaries, increasing environmental pressures and biodiversity loss, scientific community together with policy makers is searching for sources of change towards sustainable bioeconomy. Therefore, there is a clear scientific interest in connection of innovation and sustainable development as well as competitiveness. As RDI is proved by empirical research to be a driver of sustainability and competitiveness of bioeconomy, it is relevant to look at the innovation performance of different countries for comparison. This article aims to make a comparative overview of the bioeconomy related research and innovation performance between BIOEAST countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Croatia, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovenia and Slovakia). Comparison to EU-27 (from 2020) and the EU Innovation Leaders is also made. The methodology is based on methods of analysis, interpretation and relevant comparisons of selected indicators. The research results point out that BIOEAST countries show very different innovation performance results. There is a wide innovation performance gap between most BIOEAST countries and the EU Innovation Leaders in terms of citable publications and especially patenting activity. Leading BIOEAST countries are in some cases similar to the EU Innovation Leaders. The research may be interesting for both researchers and policy makers and offers opportunities for future studies on the subject.</p> Vlada Vitunskienė, Agnė Dapkuvienė Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 CHANGES IN ACCESSIBILITY OF EDUCATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE IN RURAL AREAS - EVIDENCE FROM POLAND <p>Social infrastructure is an important element determining local socio-economic development. The paper deals with the problem of residents' access to basic educational infrastructure. The aim of the study was to determine the accessibility to educational infrastructure in rural areas in Poland. Social and spatial accessibility to primary schools and kindergartens in rural areas was specified. Research used data provided by Statistics Poland for period 2000-2019. The article reveals that the spatial availability of educational infrastructure in rural areas has changed over time; compared to urban areas it is worse for kindergartens and better for primary schools. Social accessibility to rural kindergartens has increased significantly. Private sector and non-governmental organizations play an increasingly important role in ensuring access to educational infrastructure in rural areas in Poland. Providing access to rural education is a very important task for local authorities in Poland. Educational facilities, i.e. schools, fulfilling many non-educational functions, determine the vitality and development of local communities.</p> Agnieszka Wojewódzka-Wiewiórska, Maciej Stawicki Copyright (c) 2021 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200