Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” <p>Proceedings of Conference “Rural Development” are published periodically every two years since 2003 and indexed by Clarivate Analytics (Web of Science), EBSCO (Academic Search Complete). The conference proceedings dedicated to publishing empirical and theoretical studies and analyses in <em>Agro-innovations and Food Technologies, Biosystems Engineering and Environment Integrity, Sustainable Use of Natural Bio-Resources, Social Innovations for Rural Development</em>.</p> <p><strong>All the previous issues of the Proceedings could be found</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Here</strong></a></p> en-US (Assoc. prof. dr. Judita Černiauskienė) (Aurelija Markelytė) Tue, 12 May 2020 21:02:10 +0300 OJS 60 TECHNOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION FOR AUTOMATING THE CULTIVATION OF BLUEBERRIES IN BLUEBERRY PLANTATIONS ESTABLISHED ON DEPLETED PEAT MILLING FIELDS <p>In order to increase the cost-effectiveness of blueberry (Vaccinium) cultivation in blueberry plantations, all of its technological operations should be automatized. It is reasonable to start the automation of blueberry cultivation from the technological operation of fertilising the blueberries as the main purpose of this operation is to dose a prescribed amount of fertiliser under the plant’s crown. When a new blueberry plantation is established on depleted peat milling fields, then the plants are set at pre-determined steps into parallel rows. Fertilisation of the plants in the first years of growth must be performed individually, i.e. each plant is fertilised separately. This is called precision fertilisation. In order to design the technological devices for blueberry cultivation, including the fertiliser robot, we must know the location of plants on the field or, more precisely, their position in the row. The goal of this study is to determine the position of blueberry plants in the plantation. In order to meet the goal, measurements were performed in the blueberry plantation and the position of plants in randomly chosen row was measured. It became clear from the study that plants are not positioned regularly at equal intervals in a straight line; therefore, the fertiliser robot to be designed must include the functions of plant identification and control of fertiliser jet to ensure individual or precision fertilisation of plants.</p> Margus Arak, Jüri Olt Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Wed, 11 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 THE PROBLEMS OF MICROCLIMATE IN LITHUANIAN COWSHEDS <p>The experimental studies were carried out in the most common cowsheds in Lithuania. The cowsheds involved in the research featured different insulation patterns and livestock keeping technologies where cows were kept tied or loose. The efficiency of ventilation system was measured in 7 cowsheds based on the variation in air temperature, air relative humidity (RH) and ammonia. The main problems of microclimate in Lithuanian cowsheds were found to be as follows: a high relative humidity resulting in water vapour condensation on the roof structures; the air temperature is regularly below the recommended minimum of -7 °C; the air temperature is regularly above the recommended maximum of 25 °C. Optimization of the microclimate in cowsheds concerned, it is recommended to adjust the ventilation intensity based on the difference of air temperatures within the barn and outdoors. During cold months of winter it is recommended to keep the air temperature in semi-insulated cowsheds by 8–11 °C higher than that outdoors, whereas in uninsulated box-type cowsheds with roof cement – higher by 5–7 °C, and in uninsulated box-type cowsheds with roof metal – higher by only 3–5 °C. During severely freezing periods of outdoor temperature, the air temperature was found not to drop below -7 °C only in insulated cowsheds. Whereas during extremely hot days when the outdoor temperature rises above 26–28 °C, the cowsheds of all types (those insulated and uninsulated) were found to be too hot for cows. Consequently, thermal insulation of a cowshed’s roof and adjustment of the ventilation intensity are not sufficient for solving the problems caused by heat stress in the cowsheds.</p> Indrė Bagdonienė, Rolandas Bleizgys Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Fri, 13 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 HAVE TRACTOR MANUFACTURERS BORE IN MIND SOIL COMPACTION OVER THE LAST 40 YEARS? <p>Soil compaction is the compression of soil particles in a lower volume as a consequence of the reduction of the spaces existing among the particles themselves. This phenomenon is caused by natural forces and, above all, human ones. In order to estimate the field damages that can be caused by the traffic of agricultural machines, the load and the mean pressure applied by the tyres onto the soil can be measured. The research aim is to determine the pressure applied by each considered tractor onto the soil, in order to evaluate the effect of the traffic of tractors onto the soil itself.</p> <p>A total of 783 wheeled tractors manufactured and marketed in the last 35 years (1979-2014) were investigated. Data like construction year, manufacturer, model, power, total weight, weight (load) on the front and rear axle, wheelbase, front and rear type of tyres, as well as the tyre specifications, were collected.</p> <p>The mean pressure applied by each tractor onto the soil was computed by dividing the load applied on each tyre by its contact area.</p> <p>In order to reduce the pressure applied by agricultural machines onto the soil, the vehicle mass and, therefore weight, has to be reduced, or the tyre contact area on the soil has to be increased. Farmers can easily increase the tyre contact area, by decreasing the tyre inflation pressure or increasing the tyre width, i.e. mounting tyres having a larger section width, or Terra Tyres, or twin-tyres.</p> <p>Over the last 40 years: the mean power of mechanical four wheel drive (MFWD) tractors and four wheel drive (4WD) (isodiametric tyres) tractors increased, while that of two wheel drive (2WD) tractors remained constant; the power and the total weight increased, while the weight-power ratio decreased. Practically the reduction of the mean pressure on the soil resulted rather limited, meaning that tractor manufacturers have not bore in mind soil compaction.</p> Antonio Comparetti, Pierluigi Febo, Carlo Greco, Santo Orlando Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Wed, 04 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 METHODOLOGY OF TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS ASSESSMENT IN AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS BY BIODIVERSITY INDICATORS USE <p>The implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC within Eastern European is now becoming of utmost significance. This is especially relevant to the territory of Ukrainian Polessie, which is characterized by specific geological and geomorphological conditions, excessive humidification and significant anthropogenic pressure on all components of ecosystems. In this section, we present a methodology for evaluating the content of specific toxicological substances based on a diversitological approach to the macrophyte composition of reservoirs. At the same time, the possibility to apply diversisologic indicators for the bio-indication of the content of heavy metals in coastal soils and bottom deposits was assessed. The most striking changes in the species composition are manifested at the points of the most significant anthropogenic pressure in the presence of toxic compounds in aquatic ecosystems. Significant variations in view indices were noted when the high concentration of heavy metals was reached in the bottom soil. The most significant influence on the species composition is due to high concentrations of the active forms of zinc and cuprum cations in both coastal soils and bottom deposits, although the excessive maximum limits allowed were only in the second group of substances. The close correlation between the content of all investigated groups of heavy metals in bottom deposits and species numbers, the index of dominance, Shannon Diversity Index, and Pielou’s Evenness Index were established. For Margalef Species Richness Index, close dependencies were established for active forms of cations of nickel, cobalt, zinc and cadmium, for other groups the bonds were weak. For Sørensen–Dice Index weaknesses were found with the contents of active forms of cations of nickel and chromium; for other groups of active forms of heavy metals, except cobalt cations, close ties were established as well.</p> Tetiana Fedoniuk, Oleh Skydan, Roman Fedoniuk Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Fri, 13 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 LCA APPLIED TO AN ANAEROBIC DIGESTION PLANT FOR BIOMETHANE AND DIGESTATE PRODUCTION <p>Nowadays it is paramount to promote bioenergy for climate protection, energy security and creation of income/jobs. In this perspective, Anaerobic Digestion (AD) for biogas and digestate production seems to be a viable way to simultaneously improve waste management while producing Renewable Energy Sources (RES). The main objective of this work is to assess the environmental impact associated with biomethane and digestate production from an AD plant as Global Warming Potential, expressed in CO<sub>2</sub> equivalents. Therefore, a LCA was carried out for the production of biomethane ready for the injection into the Italian distribution natural gas grid.</p> <p>A mix from different waste sources (cattle manure and slurry, pig slurry, Citrus industry by-product, chicken manure, manure from broilers, triticale silage and waste from vegetable cleaning) is considered for biogas and digestate production. Besides biomethane this plant will produce digestate, that is a biological and nutrient-rich fertiliser. Thus, the cycle of circular economy is closed, as the recovery of matter and energy is carried out from waste.</p> <p>The results clearly indicate the importance of the process steps transport of biomass to AD plant and, above all, methane upgrading (separation by membrane). Depending on the high amount of the substrate and long distance travelled, Citrus waste substrate transport accounts for the largest share in GHG emissions with 0.229 kg CO<sub>2</sub>-eq/Nm<sup>3</sup> or 70.5 % of total transportation emission. Greenhouse gas emissions estimated for the various process stages for the Sclafani Bagni plant showed, that methane upgrading emits 1.95 kg CO<sub>2</sub>-eq/Nm<sup>3</sup>, while other processes totally emits 0.525 kg CO<sub>2</sub>-eq/Nm<sup>3</sup>. The LCIA results confirmed the negative total impact of the process with grid injection, in terms of kg of CO<sub>2</sub> eq.: the LCA verified the carbon-negative-bio-energy concept of the project. Therefore, biomethane derived from biogas is an entirely renewable and readily available low carbon alternative fuel, that can be locally produced from organic waste and capable to replace the fossil natural gas in the near future.</p> Carlo Greco, Antonio Comparetti, Pierluigi Febo, Kęstutis Navickas, Santo Orlando, Kęstutis Venslauskas Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Mon, 16 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 FACTORS AFFECTING URBANIZATION IN THE RURAL AREAS <p>By overviewing the developmental trends of Lithuanian cities, rapid growth in the urbanization of smaller suburb areas is observed. The aim of the research is to determine the factors impacting the urbanization of rural areas. The built-up areas of Kaunas district municipality and factors impacting their distribution are the object of this research. The largest built-up areas are in the subdistricts where cities are deployed as well as in subdistricts having the best living and recreational circumstances. When conducting the research, factors impacting the distribution of the built-up areas have been analysed.<br>In Kaunas district municipality, beneficial circumstances for the urbanization development exist since the population growth in the last 7 years corresponds to the optimistic scenarios projected in the general plan. It has been determined that 3 factors have the greatest impact on the built-up areas: the area of the subdistrict itself, the distance to the centre of the region and the market value of the land.</p> Virginija Gurskiene, Justė Urbaitienė, Vida Malienė, Velta Parsova Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 THE CHANGE OF NATURAL LANDSCAPE IN PALANGA CITY (LITHUANIA) <p>The paper presents the comparative analysis of the Palanga city landscape change during the period between 2008 and 2019. For this analysis, the land fund statistics of the Republic of Lithuania, which had been grouped into a relatively natural and anthropogenic landscape, were used. Landscape change is graphically shown in the figures. Lithuanian and foreign scientific literature and legal acts were analyzed for the fulfillment of the work. The Palanga city landscape analysis of the current situation was done. During the analysis the Palanga city statistics were compared with the data of Klaipeda County and the Republic of Lithuania.</p> <p>Landscape structure maintenance is the subject important and relevant to this day, as the landscape shapes the country's culture and is the component of natural and cultural heritage contributing to the quality of life and it consolidates Lithuanian identity, uniqueness in Europe and the world. The topic is actual because it is necessary to analyze landscape change in Palanga in order to evaluate and preserve the components of natural landscape in Lithuanian resort.</p> <p>The analysis showed that during the analyzed period the Palanga city natural landscape area 46.34 ha or 1.39 percent. The increase of the natural landscape area was determined by the development of water bodies and wetland areas.</p> Giedrė Ivavičiūtė Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Fri, 13 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 TECHNOLOGICAL, TECHNICAL AND QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF MAIZE SILAGE MAKING AND UNLOADING FROM TRENCH <p>Silage for animal feeding can be made from different plants. One of the most important feed crops from which silage is made is maize. Special choppers can be used for cutting and chopping these coarse-stem plants. The most widespread silage preparation is done in trenches, where good quality silage can last for several years, making it one of the best feeds in winter. Incorrect picking and unloading of silage from trenches may result in secondary fermentation and may cause forage losses. Various types of equipment are used for silo unloading from storage. This work researches maize plants, the quality of maize silage and the process of silage making and unloading. The research was carried out in the laboratories of Agriculture Academy of Vytautas Magnus University and in a farmer’s farm. Tests have been performed with three different silo unloaders and a mobile feed mixer. The established average corn plant yield in 2018 was 31.8&nbsp;t&nbsp;ha<sup>-1</sup>; for silage making, the plants were chopped with the drum chopper. After evaluation of the fractional composition of chopped mass, the chopped maize slices were found to meet the silage production requirements, as even 82.6% of the chopped particles were 3.15-16 mm long. Maize slice moisture was also found to be suitable for silage – 66.12±7.3%. The density of prepared silage was high enough and reached 699.89±19.04&nbsp;kg&nbsp;m<sup>-3</sup> or 230.55±6.27 kg m<sup>-3</sup> DM (dry matter). Silage unloaders test results showed that one sample of silage could be unloaded in 31–43&nbsp;s. The bucket type device could take the maximum weight sample – 567.8±77.0&nbsp;kg, but the maximum density of the silage sample (30.41±1.95 kg&nbsp;m<sup>-3</sup>) could be taken by a block-cutting unit. Also, this unloader left the smallest unevenness on the feed surface. Distribution of feed in the farm for the animal was fairly even and this indicated that the silage-unloading device had no significant impact on the quality of feed distribution.<strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Algirdas Jasinskas, Gytis Pašvenskas, Mečys Palšauskas, Jiří Souček Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Wed, 11 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 METHOD FOR SHALLOW DRAINAGE DITCH NETWORK GENERATION USING REMOTE SENSING DATA <p>Aim of this study is to develop a method for automatic shallow drainage ditch generation to drain terrain depressions using four factor least cost surface which is obtained using LiDAR (light detection and ranging) data and Sentinel-2 multispectral satellite imagery. LiDAR data are used for depression mapping in DEM, flow accumulation and slope modelling as well as CHM (canopy height model) to obtain relative vegetation height. Sentinel-2 imagery was used for land cover type identification as well as separating coniferous and deciduous forest stands. Study area is located in western Latvia and is 25 km<sup>2</sup> large. Least cost surface connects DEM depressions and already existing drainage ditches by best possible path for shallow ditch network digging. Different methods are applied to determine depressions which can be drained as well as changes of affected drained area and depression depth. This results in suitable areas where to create shallow ditches to improve water runoff. Results show that using this method average reduction of area of depressions is 79% and average length of shallow ditches on each drained depression hectare is 370 m.</p> Raitis Melniks, Janis Ivanovs, Andis Lazdins Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 24 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 THE RESEARCH WAYS TO INCREASE THE ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF GROUND HEAT EXCHANGERS BY MEANS OF MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION <p>The scientific and methodological basis for increasing the efficiency of geothermal ventilation, making it possible to use thermal energy of the Earth’s surface layers for cooling (heating) an incoming air stream are created. Mathematical modeling is performed based on the equations of hydrodynamics, heat transfer and thermal conductivity, along with a computational experiment carried out using the finite volume method.&nbsp; A mathematical model of the process of heat exchange between the flow of air in a heat exchanger and a soil mass is developed. This model describes a relationship between efficiency indicators of the horizontal ground heat exchanger and its performance parameters, and also natural climatic conditions. The determination of thermal fields in incoming cooled air and a soil mass at various depth locations of the horizontal ground heat exchanger is performed. The relationship between thermal efficiency and operation time of the horizontal heat exchanger, located at different depths, is proved. The energy comparison of a horizontal ground heat exchanger, located at different depths, with a vertical one, is made. he depth of the horizontal heat exchanger has been established, for which the loss of thermal energy in comparison with the vertical is insignificant (less than 7.5%). The operating time was determined, starting from which there are practically no differences in the level of thermal energy for all the studied models (&gt; 10<sup>7</sup> s). The developed mathematical model allows to predict the energy efficiency indicators of a horizontal ground heat exchanger on the basis of its performance parameters and natural climatic conditions, that makes possible determining the economically optimal depth of the heat exchanger location under specific conditions.</p> Olena Mikhailutsa, Oleksiy Koviazin, Andriy Pozhuyev, Nataliia Poliakova, Tatiana Melikhova Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 10 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 DEVELOPMENT OF FUZZY BLOCKS INTENDED FOR AGENTS CONSTITUTING INTELLIGENT SYSTEM OF MOBILE ROBOT MOVEMENT PLANNING <p>With the advancement of technologies, there are attempts to automate the majority of processes for various reasons, for instance, to improve and optimize production or to perform actions that may cause risk to people’s health, etc. Therefore, the use of mobile autonomous robots is becoming increasingly important as the limits of the potential of the use of autonomous mobile robots in the industry have not yet been reached. The attempts have been made to achieve this by developing optimum trajectory calculation algorithms which enable the robot to move freely in both static and dynamic environments and use an optimum trajectory. Therefore, the subject of study in this article was movement of a mobile robot in an unknown environment using a multi-agent device system and fuzzy logics, and the goal of the study was to prepare the methods for development of intelligent systems for planning mobile robot movement in an unknown environment using multi-agent device and fuzzy logics ensuring the robot will accomplish the planned and adjusted on the go safe trajectory in the environment with unknown obstacles. Based on this, the robot arm model has been developed after calculating in the article the missing parameters of the experimental mobile robot in order to analyze the peculiarities of using the multi-agent device as well as the specifics and challenges of using fuzzy logics. As a result of the study performed in the article, significant data were obtained based on which a method was offered for an intelligent system for planning mobile robot movement in an unknown static environment using a multi-agent system, which was characterized by the use of fuzzy blocks corresponding each agent, and localization of each solution to the task of planning robot movement in each specific situation, which enables to improve the accuracy and efficiency of movement planning.</p> Andrius Nemeikšis, Vitalijs Osadčuks Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Wed, 04 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 METHOD OF DESIGNING FUZZY SYSTEM FOR PLANNING ROBOT MANIPULATOR REAL-TIME MOVEMENT IN A STATIC ENVIRONMENT <p>Under rapid development of science and industry the industrial robots and robotic systems are more widely used in the field of industry. The robots and robotic systems help to manage and master new technological processes efficiently and effectively. In this article there was carried out the analysis of the two degree of freedom (DOF) robot arm, which is widely used in practice in order to reveal its functions and to identify its key dynamic parameters using fuzzy logic system. The mathematical model of robot arm dynamics is composed, which includes the mathematical models of the robot arm links twirling motors and the direct positions task model generating the end point of the robot. After the analysis of the robot model the expanded research was performed – after calculating the missing parameters of experimental 2DOF robot arm motors there was created the robot arm model with „V-REP“ and “MATLAB Simulink” software packages that allowed to set the control voltages and to observe the changing in time processes of link velocity trajectories. There is calculated designed planar robot end point trajectory deviation from the dynamic trajectory.</p> Daiva Nemeikšytė, Vitalijs Osadčuks Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 BIOMASS BOTTOM ASH RECYCLING AS PAVEMENT BASE <p>EU countries agreed upon increasing the use of renewable energy, which strongly stimulates usage of biofuels. Biomass ash is generated as a residue product in large volumes as a result of biomass combustion. Heavy metal content in the ashes is the main hinder for further ash utilization in agriculture, forestry and construction sector. Aim of this study was to assess potential of biomass ash to be used as pavement base, also to evaluate risks associated with heavy metals contained in ash as well as their leaching possibility. Ash elemental analysis showed that biomass was burned efficiently, and organic carbon content in ash samples was below 2%. The limiting trace element was cadmium, which concentration in ash exceeded maximum permissible value, restricting ash recycling in forestry or agriculture. Leaching test showed that there is no threat to the environment when such waste material is used in road construction as base layer. All leaching values were below permissible concentrations or even below ICP detection limits. Compaction tests of layers made from gravel/ash mixtures revealed that biomass ash could be successfully used in road construction industry. Results showed that the strongest mixed layer was from 80% gravel and 20% ash. The compaction of this mixture was the highest, only the second best result showed pure 100% gravel, while the least compacted was 50% ash and 50% gravel mixture.</p> Adomas Neteckis, Valdas Paulauskas, Alfreda Kasiulienė, Gerda Junevičiūtė Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 29 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 EXPLORATION OF THE POSSIBILITIES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF TABLEWARE FROM THE BRAN OF VARIOUS CEREALS <p>Biodegradable and compostable tableware is significantly more environment and nature friendly than disposable tableware and drinkware made of plastic. Tableware made of wheat bran, but also corn and rice bran is already commercially available. It is reasonable to use the by-products of the milling of also other cereals, like rye bran, barley bran and oat bran, for the production of tableware. The aim of this research was to explore the possibilities for the production of tableware and drinkware from the by-products of the milling of wheat and also other cereals like rye and oat bran. In order to achieve the aim, compacts were moulded from rye bran and oat bran and mixtures of bran (wheat bran and rye bran) using various work modes. The moulding of the compacts included different temperatures of the mould, moulding durations and compressive forces. The mechanical properties like density and flexural strength of the compacts were determined and the compostability of the compacts was studied. The test bodies were placed inside a compost bin to check their compostability and to determine the duration of composting.Biodegradable and compostable tableware is significantly more environment and nature friendly than disposable tableware and drinkware made of plastic. Tableware made of wheat bran, but also corn and rice bran is already commercially available. It is reasonable to use the by-products of the milling of also other cereals, like rye bran, barley bran and oat bran, for the production of tableware. The aim of this research was to explore the possibilities for the production of tableware and drinkware from the by-products of the milling of wheat and also other cereals like rye and oat bran. In order to achieve the aim, compacts were moulded from rye bran and oat bran and mixtures of bran (wheat bran and rye bran) using various work modes. The moulding of the compacts included different temperatures of the mould, moulding durations and compressive forces. The mechanical properties like density and flexural strength of the compacts were determined and the compostability of the compacts was studied. The test bodies were placed inside a compost bin to check their compostability and to determine the duration of composting.</p> Jüri Olt, Kaarel Soots, Andres Olt, Vahur Rooni Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Wed, 11 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION OF THE COWS BEARING AREA <p>Today, economic conditions in the market encourage farmers to look for ways to produce quality produce at a low cost without polluting the environment. This leads to the search for new technologies that make it possible to strike a balance between criteria such as animal welfare, environmental protection and the cost of production. The research carried out reveals a new approach to housing conditions, constructional and technological solutions.</p> <p>Cowshed ground and the surrounding soil temperature fluctuations have a seasonal nature, as the Lithuanian climate is characterized by temperature change in individual seasons. The cowshed experimental studies show that a significant influence on the ground soil temperature field has the animal radiant heat that transmits not only in the air but also on the ground soil through the floor. The highest temperature of the analyzed soil during the cold season is under the floor of the bearing housing. The temperature relationship of the floor of the bearing housing and the ground soil is especially evident in the coldest winter period. The cowshed floor and surrounding soil temperature measurements showed that the soil temperature field is in a constant dynamic state. The heat transfer, occurring between the outside of the building and the soil under the building as well as at the floor installed over them, is influenced by the external temperature regime.</p> Dainius Ramukevičius, Raimondas Šadzevičius, Rytis Skominas, Vincas Gurskis Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 15 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 EFFECT OF AGGREGATES IMPURITY ON CONCRETE PROPERTIES <p>Concrete is one of the most popular construction materials in the world. The concrete properties depend from many factors. One of them is aggregates quality, which can be defined as an impurity level. The most unwanted materials in fine aggregates are clay and soil particles. These particles can impure aggregates due to irregular sands in quarry and during the digging process. In the present paper were estimated how impurity impact the properties of concrete. During the research the aggregates were impured with clay and soil particles. The change of fresh concrete workability, hardened concrete density, compression strength, water absorbability and frost resistance were evaluated. The results show that aggregates impurity with clay and especially with organic materials (soil) is very dangerous. The concrete workability, frost resistance is decreasing. The clay and soil have a different effect on hardened concrete density and compression strength. Soil decreased both parameters while well mixed clay increased these characteristics. However, generalizing all results, can be stated, that keeping the same level of concrete workability it is necessary to raise water and cement ratio and it will give strength loss effect.</p> Rytis Skominas, Vincas Gurskis, Raimondas Šadzevičius, Dainius Ramukevičius Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 15 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 MAIN DEFECTS AND DETERIORATIONS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES IN THE ABANDONED HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES OF LITHUANIA <p>Many abandoned (term "hostless" by 2010) hydraulic structures have been exploited for over 30 years, so due to the aging of materials, the probability of failures and accidents increases. Due to the insufficient exploitation in several dams the breakdowns occurred, some ponds in damaged dams have been emptied. It is known that no comprehensive research on technical state evaluation of abandoned hydraulic structures in Lithuania has been carried out. It becomes clear that practical, scientifically based algorithms for the technical state evaluation of abandoned hydraulic structures are needed in order to assess the impact of environmental factors on the technical state, safety, reliability and durability of structures. This paper focuses on the presentation of investigation results of technical state evaluation of 4 abandoned hydroschemes in Raseiniai distr. Due to the noticed significant defects and deteriorations all 4 hydroschemes are in critical state, the pond in Gyliai IV is emptied, the demolition of reinforced concrete structures should be applied in this object.</p> Raimondas Šadzevičius, Rytis Skominas, Tatjana Sankauskienė, Dainius Ramukevičius Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 24 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 MANAGEMENT OF SEPARATED MUNICIPAL WASTE FLOW IN KAUNAS CITY <p>Individual municipal waste streams of Kaunas (Lithuania) in the period 2012-2015 period was found that mixed municipal waste collected in the city of Kaunas municipality, prefabricated containers, compared to the 2012 decreases. 2015. Collect points mixed municipal waste are reduced from 118,065.56 tons to 100,470.6 tons, accounting for 15%. Biodegradable (green waste) quantities of green waste collection a site does not increase compared in 2012 and 2015. (in 2014 these waste was not collected). The decrease may be affected by that green waste is used boiler house that green waste for energy recovery. The recyclable waste separate secondary maximum (4.5 times) Increased quantities of collected waste paper, plastic positive capture an increase of 1.5 times. Glass collection containers steadily decreasing (from 2.46 tons 2012 to 1094 tons 2015). The trend to rise only noticeable only after complementary systems and DGASA (deposit system). In particular increased textile waste collection (up to 10 times). Toxic waste collection Kaunas City Municipality is constantly increasing tire (up to 2 times); waste containing mercury and packages containing hazardous substances (up to 3 times.). Electrical and electronic waste collection throughout the 2012 -2015 year. Period effective complementary systems (collected 99 % of such waste), but the amounts vary from year to year, and substantial growth was observed. Population change shows that especially affect the population of secondary separate paper (r= 0.994, p = 0.04), plastic (r=0.923, p =0, 0.047), tires (r=0.960, p =0, 0.040), and toxic waste (lamps, and hazardous materials) collection. According to the results it can be said that some of the waste (green, glass, electrical equipment) gathers a group of people decided to lead.</p> Daiva Šileikienė, Laima Česonienė, Edita Mažuolytė-Miškinė Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 24 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 DETERMINATION OF THE RATIONAL PROFILE FOR THE DISK WORKING TOOL WHEN CULTIVATING OF SOD PODZOLIC SOILS <p>Maintaining soil fertility is one of the main objectives of agricultural production. An important factor in soil fertility is its optimal structure. For the minimum cultivation of soil widely used equipped with spherical cut-off discs heavy harrows. The purpose of their use, along with others, in the cultivation of heavy soils, for example, chernozems, is the depression of soil boulders and, thus, the optimal structure. In the conditions of intensification of agricultural production under the influence of such soil-working tools in the cultivation of malocontuitive sod-podzolic soils and running gears of mobile equipment, the destruction of the soil structure, the reduction of the number of agronomically valuable water-supply units, and the spread of soil. Thus, for the cultivation of such soils, it is necessary to use discs of another profile, which would ensure the minimum destruction of agronomically valuable watertight aggregates. In order to create such a working body, the process of structuring the agronomically valuable water-conserving aggregates, factors influencing it and analyzing the energy criteria for the formation of a water-tight structure is considered. The features, which arise during mechanical cultivation of soil, influence of cultivation on its structure and features of the stress-strain state of soil are studied. A mathematical model is developed that allows calculating the stress state of the soil and designing the most rational form of disk working bodies. In the conducted studies, the influence of the depth of cultivation, the number of cutouts, the size of the cutout angle and the length of the chord of the projection were studied. On the basis of the developed mathematical model, a rational profile of the disk working organ for the cultivation of small-coupling sod-podzolic soils was obtained and its tests were performed, which showed a decrease of the erosion-dangerous particles of the soil by (&lt;0,25 mm) &nbsp;24%.</p> Pavlo Zabrodskyi , Savelii Kukharets , Andrii Zabrodskyi, Jonas Čėsna Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Mon, 16 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Title Pages of Conference Proceedings <p>We are pleased to present the Proceedings of the 9th International Scientific Conference “Rural Development 2019: Research and Innovation for Bioeconomy”. The Conference took place in Academia, Kaunas district, Lithuania at the Vytautas Magnus University, 26–28 September, 2019.</p> <p>The 9<sup>th</sup> International Scientific Conference “Rural Development 2019” was the most effective bi-annual platform for the interdisciplinary scientific discussions and the presentations of new ideas for Sustainable Rural Development in the context of research and innovation for Bioeconomy. The Conference brings together scientists, practitioners, policy makers and actors from private sector around the world to share their experience helping countries to provide their citizens with a more competitive economy, more and better jobs and a better quality of life.</p> <p>The topic of the Conference has allowed for the exploration of different aspects of four main areas:</p> <ul> <li>Agro-innovations and Food Technologies</li> <li>Biosystems Engineering and Environment Integrity</li> <li>Multifunctional Approach for Sustainable Use of Bio-Resources</li> <li>Social Innovations for Rural Development</li> </ul> <p>The topic “Research and Innovation for Bioeconomy” chosen for the 9<sup>th</sup> International Scientific Conference sparked strong interest among the professional and scientific community and elicited great response to the call for papers. The Proceedings include 86 peer-reviewed papers and contributions from 283 authors. In total we received 106 submissions for the Conference. A selection of papers are available in this volume. The majority of the contributed papers are included as are selected papers from the discussions sessions.and have been peer reviewed by two experts.</p> <p>We want to thank Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuanian Ministry of Agriculture, and Research Council of Lithuania for the generous financial support that made the Conference possible.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>2019, December 28</p> Asta Raupelienė Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0300 THE OPINION OF FOREST OWNERS ON EUROPEAN UNION SUBSIDIES INTENDED FOR FOREST MANAGEMENT IN LATVIA <p>To clarify the opinion of Latvian private forest owners on the use of EU funding in forest management, a survey of forest owners (Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies grant project No. Z7 funding) was conducted in November 2018 by the staff members of the Forest Advisory Service Centre (FASC) which is a branch of the Latvian Rural Advisory and Training Centre. A total of 153 forest owners have been included in the survey, of whom 107 (70%) forest owners have previously used EU funding support in forest management, and 46 forest owners (30%) who have not used this opportunity. The respondents included in the survey represent forest owners from all regions of Latvia. The survey included general questions describing the profile of the forest owner, such as the size of the owned forest area, for how long the forest has been the owner’s property, knowledge of forest management and the way of receiving information. Regarding the attracting of EU funding, the forest owner's view of the already used EU support and its type was clarified and the overall level of satisfaction, the necessary improvements, and the type of EU support needed for further forest management were identified. The study also includes the results of other similar surveys carried out by other institutions on forest owners’ opinions on EU support for forestry. The results of the survey conducted by FASC confirm that 76% of forest owners who have already used some measures of the EU's financial support at least once are ready to take advantage of the opportunity to apply for the support also in the future. The forest owners, who have not used EU financial support for forest management so far, continue to express sceptical opinions, and only 46% of such respondents would be willing to apply for further EU support funding. When comparing the priority support directions specified by forest owners, it can be concluded that the trends in the need for subsidies are fairly similar, 80% of owners who have previously used the financial EU support, point out that support for young stand and advanced growth thinning is still needed in the future. The same opinion has been expressed by 70% of forest owners who have not previously used the EU funding. In a series of studies, a general trend for priority of most desirable EU subsidies have been identified and it was revealed that 61% of forest owners want to receive support for young stand and advanced growth thinning. Half of this percentage of respondents have pointed out the need for EU subsidies for forest amelioration and road construction (32%), forest establishment (31%), forest regeneration (30%) and for compensations of the protection of natural values and for it management&nbsp; (29%).</p> Raimonds Bermanis, Inga Straupe, Andra Zvirbule Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 01 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0200 IMPACT OF MARIJAMPOLĖ WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT ON WATER QUALITY OF THE ŠEŠUPĖ RIVER <p>The aim of the paper was to determine the impact of Marijampolė city wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) on the water quality of the Šešupė River. The wastewater and surface water samples were collected from January 2015 until January 2018. The condition of the surface water the Šešupė River condition is assessed 100 meters before the release point and 500 meters after the release point. The results show that the wastewater treatment&nbsp; is treated efficiently. It has been determined that the values all indicators of wastewater treatment efficiency duration of the study was the same (the function was negative, and the determination coefficients were very low: R<sup>2</sup>= 0. 03; R<sup>2</sup>= 0.012; R<sup>2</sup>= 0.0006 and R<sup>2</sup>=0.034). The treated wastewater is released from the Marijampolė WWTP into the Šešupe River. The highest concentration according to all examined indicators was in 500 meters after the release of the wastewater. All differences were found to be statistically significant. It shows that, although wastewater is efficiently treated, it has a negative impact on the water quality of the Šešupė River.</p> Midona Dapkiene, Laima Česonienė, Tauras Vasiliauskas Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Fri, 13 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 EFFECT OF SOIL PREPARATION METHOD ON SOIL TEMPERATURE <p>The success of the forest regeneration with planting is determined by many factors and one of them is soil preparation. Chosen soil preparation method impacts different environmental aspects and one of them is soil temperature and that is one of main abiotic factors determining the growth of roots.&nbsp;&nbsp; Development of the root system is a key prerequisite for growth of newly planted trees. The aim of this research was to assess the impact of the soil preparation method on the surface (5 and 20 cm) temperature of the soil. The study was done in 8 young stand sites with different soil preparation methods, soil preparation design (orientation relative to cardinal points) and different forest types in central and north-western part of Latvia. Soil temperature measurements were taken at 5 cm and 20 cm depths in both sides of furrows and in spot mounds at every study site with hand held thermometer, in few young stands unprepared soil temperature was also measured. Mean values and standard error were calculated and the statistical significance was determined by:&nbsp; the Shapiro-Wilk normality test, the Kruskal-Wallis Test and pairwise Wilcoxon test with a 95% confidence level. Our results show that soil preparation positively impact soil temperature compared to unprepared soil and soil temperature in spot mounds was significantly higher than in furrows during clear and hot (27-32°C) day at both depth and in overcast weather with moderate air temperature (20-23°C) in depth of 20 cm.</p> Kārlis Dūmiņš, Toms Artūrs Štāls, Dagnija Lazdiņa Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 01 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0200 EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT CLIMATIC CONDITIONS ON BIRCH AND POPLAR SEEDLINGS <p>The effects of different climatic conditions on birch (<em>Betula pendula</em> Roth) and poplar (<em>Populus</em>) hybrids seedlings were studied. This study consists of two parts, firstly, an experiment with poplars and, secondly, the experiment with birch seedlings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth of birch and poplar seedlings under the current and modelled climatic conditions. Results showed that the simulation of short-term warmer weather conditions and higher CO<sub>2</sub> concentration led to more intensive growth of silver birch saplings. Different climatic conditions did not significantly change photosynthetic and transpiration rate of one year old silver birch seedlings. Contrary the transpiration and photosynthesis rate of poplar seedlings significantly depended on drought and clone but not on hybrid. Drought altered the transpiration and photosynthesis intensity, water use efficiency, and correlation among most of the traits. The <em>P. maximowiczii</em> × <em>P. trichocarpa</em>, <em>P. balsamifera</em> × <em>P. trichocarpa</em> hybrids increased their water use efficiency under the drought conditions and were characterized by faster growth hybrids. The sensitivity of poplar hybrids to UV-B radiation varied and depended on the origin of their parental trees: poplar hybrids from the northern latitudes were more sensitive to the increased UV-B radiation than those of southern origin. The best growth after simulated warm winter was obtained for the P. deltoides × P. nigra and P. nigra × P. nigra hybrids, originating from the southern areas. The findings from this experiment are more applicable to young birch and poplar trees, but stress on young trees may be reflected in future tree growth.</p> Valda Gudynaitė-Franckevičienė, Valda Araminienė, Iveta Varnagirytė-Kabašinskienė Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 26 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0200 FINDING THE BEST LOCATIONS FOR FURROWS IN SOIL BERMS OF DRAINAGE DITCHES USING LIDAR DATA <p>Soil berms are typically built on the sides of ditches and are designed to purify water from agricultural fertilizers and to limit the transport of sediments to water bodies. However, for soils with fine particles, water filtration is limited and wet soil conditions can occur, which in turn reduces the soil's hydrologic conductivity capacity and hinders tree growth in the forest. The aim of the study is to develop a methodology for automatic modeling of the furrows in soil berms. Open source software QGIS and GRASS GIS is used in data processing. LiDAR data with minimum ground point density of 1.5 points per square meter were used in DEM creation. Local maximum analysis and further data filtration were used in determination of locations of soil berms. The results show that by making one furrow for every 185 m of ditches it is possible to reduce the area of the depressions by up to 91.8%.</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Janis Ivanovs, Raitis Melniks Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 29 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0200 PRE-SOWING SEED TREATMENT WITH PHYSICAL STRESSORS INDUCES CHANGES IN AMOUNT OF SECONDARY METABOLITES IN NEEDLES OF PICEA ABIES SEEDLINGS <p>Tree resistance to pathogens is related to the general viability of trees, their growth energy, and ability to synthesize and to mobilize secondary metabolites (SMs), usually phenolic compounds, in tissues. The total phenolic content (TPC) in Norway spruce needles was determined during two vegetation seasons in order to compare the chemical background and ability of different Norway spruce half-sib families to synthesize TPC in response to seed treatment with physical stressors: cold plasma for 1 and 2 min (CP1, CP2) and electromagnetic field for 2 min (EMF2). TPC in seedling needles significantly differed between affected and control groups, but differences were stronger exerted during the first year of vegetation. In the first vegetation season, the strongest positive effects on TPC synthesis were induced by EMF2 treatment in 463 and 577 half-sib families, by CP1 treatment − in 457 half-sib family and by CP2 treatment − in 541 half-sib family; in the second vegetation season strongest effects were detected in CP1 treated 457 half-sib family and in CP2 treated 548 and 477 half-sib families. The half-sib families of <em>Picea abies</em> with higher TPC induced by seed treatment with different physical stressors could be more resistant to pathogens and diseases. The variance component of family for TPC variated from 14±10 % till 17±11 %, and was significant. The interaction of genotype and environment on TPC was as high as 49 ± 20%.</p> Mantas Kačiušis, Vaida Sirgedaitė-Šėžienė, Povilas Žemaitis, Vida Mildažienė, Giedrė Paužaitė, Kazunori Koga, Masaharu Shiratani, Vitalij Novickij, Virgilijus Baliuckas Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 01 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0200 COMPARISON OF COSTS IN PRE-COMMERCIAL THINNING USING MEDIUM-SIZED AND SMALL-SIZED HARVESTERS <p>The aim of this study is to compare productivity and costs of medium-sized and small-sized harvesters in pre-commercial thinning. In this study the data on harvesting productivity were obtained in stands, where biofuel was prepared using two medium-sized and two small-sized harvesters equipped with different harvester heads. In total 677&nbsp;m<sup>3</sup> of wood was prepared with medium-sized harvester, but with small-sized harvesters 1&nbsp;164&nbsp;m<sup>3</sup> of wood was prepared. Although the total annual costs of small-class harvesters are lower by 16&nbsp;%, comparing with middle-class harvesters, the productivity rates shown by the middle-class harvester John&nbsp;Deere&nbsp;1070&nbsp;E (equipped with H&nbsp;754 harvester head) are significantly higher and the average wood preparation costs are lower, comparing with the other harvesters employed.</p> <p class="western" style="text-indent: 0.72cm; margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 100%;" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="text-decoration: none;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: xx-small;"><span lang="en-GB"><span style="font-style: normal;"><span style="font-weight: normal;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> Santa Kalēja, Agris Zimelis Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 26 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0200 EVALUATION OF IMPACT OF FERTILIZATION ON SOIL SOLUTION CHEMISTRY IN DOMINATED FOREST SITE TYPES IN LATVIA <p>Enhanced forest growth may respond to the increasing demand for wood resources. Moreover, the forest is considered to be carbon storage, thus contributing to climate change mitigation. The forest soil fertilization, as well as forest drainage, thinning and regeneration may be an effective measure in increasing harvest rates. In the context of bio-economy, wood ash needs to be managed and can be utilized as an equivalent to potassium and phosphorus containing fertilizer. Ammonium nitrate can be used as fertilizer in forests on mineral soil since nitrogen is considered to be a tree growth limiting element in boreal forests. However, environmental aspects like leaching of the fertilizer should be taken into account. The aim of this research is to evaluate the impact of wood ash, ammonium nitrate and combined wood ash and nitrogen fertilizer impact on the chemical properties of soil water in dominated forest site types in Latvia. The trials were conducted in total in 16 forest stands. The fertilizers were spread in treatment plots, but the control plots were left untreated. The soil water samples were collected for two seasons. The pH, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate and total nitrogen were determined in the soil water samples. Ammonium nitrate had an impact on the elevated concentration of total nitrogen in all experimental objects; although the significant differences between the control plot and treated plot were detected only in a part of experimental objects. The elevated concentrations of total nitrogen decreased after two months and remained above the control level. Interestingly, we observed a trend of both – increased and decreased concentrations of potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphate. Nevertheless, only a part of the differences was statistically significant. The impact of wood ash on chemical properties of soil water was less pronounced in comparison to ammonium nitrate.</p> Ilze Karklina, Arta Bardule Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 26 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0200 CHEMICAL IMMOBILISATION OF TRACE ELEMENTS USING INDUSTRIAL BY-PRODUCTS <p><strong>. </strong>Alkaline soil additives used in this study, as cement kiln dust and lime mud, resulted in significant rise of the pH in contaminated soil and sludge mixtures, while buffering capacity of the sludge appeared to be much stronger than that of the soil. Total concentrations of the investigated trace elements in the tested samples in most cases were above limit values given in Lithuanian environmental normative documents HN 60:2015 and LAND 20:2005; Cd, Zn and Pb concentrations exceeding MPCs by 2-10 times. Nickel, cadmium and copper in the sludge appeared to be the most mobile elements, their EDTA-extractable fraction reaching 30-50% from the total. The tested industrial by-products in most cases significantly reduced trace element mobility. Immobilizing effect in the contaminated soil was from low to moderate, while impact on the reduction of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, As, Se, Hg mobility in the sludge was much stronger. Alkaline treatment was not so effective to reduce mobility of Cu and As in the soil, but immobilising effect of lime mud on these elements in the sludge was significant. A multivariate data analysis model with two principle components explained 94% of the data variation. The most distinctive factor, separating samples, was the origin of the two tested metal-rich substrates: contaminated soil and sewage sludge. Contaminated soil could be distinguished by high concentrations of As, Tl, Hg and Pb. Both alkaline treatments on sewage sludge were more effective, thus scores are further from the origin, although, difference between kiln dust and lime mud immobilising effectiveness was not so significant. Application of alkaline amendments: cement kiln dust and lime mud, proved to have strong immobilizing effect on the most of the investigated trace elements, and usage of local by-products for contaminated soil (sludge) remediation purposes could be seen as an environmentally friendly, cost-effective and safe disposal alternative.</p> Alfreda Kasiulienė, Valdas Paulauskas, Ernestas Zaleckas Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 26 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0200 INFLUENCE OF INITIAL DENSITY ON INVENTORY PARAMETERS OF UNTHINNED NORWAY SPRUCE STANDS <p>Initial density to large extent determined the stand development thus is crucial to ensure efficient transfer of genetic gain in forestry. Lower density may reduce the stand establishment costs, but also impact the stem quality and standing volume. Very limited information exists about older sparse plantations, therefore aim of the study was to characterize the forest inventory parameters of low-density Norway spruce (<em>Pice abies</em> (L.) Karst.) stands. Data were collected in two planted, un-thinned, 47 year old, pure stands in central part of Latvia (56⁰N, 25⁰E) with initial density 600 and 1600&nbsp;trees&nbsp;ha<sup>-1</sup>, growing on fertile mineral soil. Even the sparsest stand (600&nbsp;trees&nbsp;ha<sup>-1</sup>) had standing volume that was not significantly different from the average in Norway spruce forests in similar conditions at the age of 80 years (294±28.8 and 318±18.7m<sup>3</sup>ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively), based on National Forest Inventory data. Mean height (21-22&nbsp;m) and length of branch-free part (&lt;1&nbsp;m) as well as diameter of the thickest branch in bottom 2m of the stem (&lt;2&nbsp;cm) and proportion of trees with stem cracks (4%) was not affected by initial stand density. Mean breast height diameter decreased and lengths of dry-branch section increased with increasing initial stand density. The proportion of browsed trees was smaller in sparser stand (23% <em>vs.</em> 31%). Notably lower initial density of planted stands than currently required (2000&nbsp;trees&nbsp;ha<sup>-1</sup>) can be used while avoiding negative impact on forest inventory parameters.</p> Juris Katrevics, Rolands Kapostins, Karlis Bickovskis, Aris Jansons Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 15 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 INFLUENCE OF THE OZONATED WATER APPLICATION ON THE OCCURRENCE OF SOME PESTS AND DISEASES IN SPRING WHEAT CROP <p>Investigations were carried out in the production fields of agricultural company Linas in Ringaudai eldership, Kaunas district. Spring wheat variety 'Koksa' was grown on non-damp, light loamy soil with a mobile phosphorus content of 173 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> and a potassium content of 139 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>. Soil acidity - pH 6.9-7.0. The ozonator was attached on the trailing sprayer JARMET. During the studies, the concentration of ozone-saturated water and the spray rate were determined so as not to damage the crop, pollute the environment, or harm humans or animals. The speed of the sprayer was 6 km h<sup>-1</sup>. The application was performed 2 or 4 times. It was determined that treatment of spring wheat with ozonated water, although not always statistically significantly, however, reduced the occurrence of powdery mildew (<em>Blumeria graminis</em>), brown rust (<em>Puccinia recondita</em>), and inhibited the spread of aphids. A tendency for tan spot (<em>Pyrenophora tritici repentis</em>) and thrips decrease in the crop was observed. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of ozonated water application on the spread of spring wheat pests and leaf diseases.</p> Sonata Kazlauskaite, Vidmantas Spruogis, Anželika Dautartė, Povilas Mulerčikas, Aurimas Krasauskas, Kimete Lluga Rizani, Elena Survilienė Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 09 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0200 CARBON POOLS IN OLD-GROWTH SCOTS PINE STANDS ON ORGANIC SOILS AND ITS CONCENTRATION IN DEADWOOD: CASES STUDY IN LATVIA <p>Carbon sequestration is crucial to mitigate climate changes, therefore it is important to have accurate estimates of carbon pools in the forest. So far, data on carbon pools in old-growth forests are very scarce, therefore aim of the study was to assess the carbon pools in old-growth Scots pine stands on organic soil and carbon concentration in deadwood of different decay classes in Latvia. Carbon content in deadwood was test in samples, collected in 26 randomly selected over mature, unmanaged stands across Latvia (five samples per decay class and tree species). Carbon pools were assessed in 38 sample plots (size 500 m<sup>2</sup>) in five Scots pine stands on wet organic soil (<em>Caricoso- phragmitosa</em> forest type) at the age of 167 to 203 years. Mean carbon concentration in deadwood across all species and decay classes was 46.6±1.57%. For aspen it did not change with progressing decay was found, but increase was observed for Scots pine, Norway spruce and birch. For these species difference in concentration between first three (more fresh) and last two decay classes (mean 45.9±0.9% and 49.9±1.6%, respectively) was statistically significant. Old-growth Scots pine stands on peat soils had rather large amount of deadwood: 100.6 ± 74.7 m<sup>3</sup>ha<sup>-1</sup>. However, its share in total carbon storage (290.0 ± 57.9 t ha-1) was small and most of carbon (57%) was found in soil. Mean annual carbon storage in tree biomass and deadwood decreased with stand age; its absolute value was similar in over-mature and mature (101-120 years) stands.</p> Laura Ķēniņa, Santa Mača, Ieva Jaunslaviete, Aris Jansons Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 26 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0200 VERIFICATION OF APPLICABILITY OF FOREST GROWTH MODEL AGM IN ELABORATION OF FORESTRY PROJECTIONS FOR NATIONAL FOREST REFERENCE LEVEL <p>Latvia's forest reference level (FRL) should take in account the future impact of dynamic age-related forest characteristics in order to avoid unduly constraining the forest management intensity as a core element of sustainable forest management practice, with the aim of maintaining or strengthening long-term carbon sinks. The basic for calculations of GHG projections is AGM (Forest growth model) and EPIM (Emissions Projections and Inventory Model). The scope of the study is to verify applicability of the AGM model in elaboration of the forestry projections for elaboration of the FRL according to regulation (EU) 2018/841.</p> Andis Lazdiņš, Guntars Šņepsts, Guna Petaja, Ilze Kārkliņa Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 09 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0200 RECALCULATION OF FOREST INCREMENT, MORTALITY AND HARVEST RATE IN LATVIA ACCORDING TO UPDATED LAND USE DATA <p>National forest inventory (NFI) is an efficient way to monitor forest resources, including increment, mortality, and harvest rate. It provides accurate statistical information about land use data, land use change and biomass stock change and enables to tie the specific increment, mortality and harvest data to defined land use category, dominant tree species, site types etc. Recently there have been introduced changes in land use calculation method using NFI data in Latvia. New calculation method takes into account present land use data and land use data from two previous cycles considerably reducing uncertainty of the estimates and takes into account possible land management practices which may alter the land use category in long-term, also usage of auxiliary data has been introduced to increase accuracy of determination of final land-use category. Changes in land use calculation method directly affects distribution of data on increment, morality and harvests between land use categories. The aim of the study is to determine increment, mortality and harvest rate in Latvia between the first and third NFI cycle (2004-2018) using updated land use data and to compare obtained result with data from the most recent greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory report.</p> Linards Ludis Krumsteds, Andis Lazdins, Aldis Butlers, Janis Ivanovs Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Mon, 16 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 COLLECTION OF THE PLANT SYMPHYOTRICHUM NEES GENUS IN VYTAUTAS MAGNUS UNIVERSITY BOTANICAL GARDEN <p>The collection of 82 collection numbers of the plant <em>Symphyotrichum</em> Nees genus has been accumulated in the period of 1923 - 2018 at Vytautas Magnus University Botanical Garden. The collection consists of <em>Symphyotrichum cordifolium</em>, <em>S. dumosum</em>, <em>S. ericoides</em>, <em>S. laeve</em>, <em>S. lanceolatum</em>, <em>S. lateriflorum</em>, <em>S. novae-angliae</em>, <em>S. novi-belgii</em>, <em>S. oblongifolium</em>, <em>S. pilosum</em>, <em>S. × salignum</em>, <em>S. tradescantii</em>, <em>S. turbinellum</em>, <em>S. urophyllum</em>, and their infraspecific taxa and cultones. The major part of the collection consists of <em>S. novi-belgii</em> (32 collection numbers) and <em>S. novae-angliae</em> (19 collection numbers) infraspecific taxa and cultones. 57 collection numbers were acquired by sproutings from other botanical gardens, private collections, nurseries, the origin of 21 collection numbers is unknown, 4 collection numbers were acquired by seed exchange with other botanical gardens. Phenological observations and biometric measurements of plants were performed according to methodological manual "Methodology of phenological observations, biometric measurements and assortment formation of ornamental herbaceous plants" prepared by J. Vaidelys in 2005. When assessing the phytopathological status of plants, powdery mildew (<em>Erysiphe cichoracearum</em>) was determined as the main disease affecting the plants. <em>S. dumosum</em> and <em>S. novi-belgii</em> interspecific taxa and cultones were the most susceptible to the disease. Plants grown in the same location for more than 3 years were more susceptible to the disease. The aim of the study was to review the <em>Symphyotrichum</em> collection and to evaluate the susceptibility of different groups of cultivars to powdery mildew.</p> Indrė Lukšytė, Sonata Kazlauskaite, Arūnas Balsevičius, Ričardas Narijauskas Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 02 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0200 CUT-AWAY PEATLAND RE-CULTIVATION WITH FAST GROWING WOODY PLANTATIONS: COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS. <p>In Latvia peat production is historically important economic sector, giving significant contribution to rural economic development and providing work places in rural areas, where other job opportunities are limited. Every peat extraction field has certain lifespan, based on economic, social or ecological assumptions. Every peat field could be extracted for set period of time, after which peat extraction is not feasible any more. Current legislation in Latvia requires re-cultivating of places, where mineral resources, including peat, were extracted. Aim of the study is to evaluate afforestation as one of the cut-away peatland re-cultivation possibility. Economic analysis were done for extracted peat field afforestation with birch, black alder, grey alder, pine, spruce, hybrid aspen, poplar and willow. The economic calculations were done comparing different timber products from plantations, different planting materials and plantation lifespans. Lowest investment costs for plantation establishment on cut-away peatlands are for pine and spruce plantations and highest for willow plantations. Highest revenues in plantations with 20 years rotation cycle are in poplar plantations with 0.2 m cuttings and lowest in grey alder plantations. In plantations with rotation cycle 40 years highest revenues are in hybrid aspen plantations and lowest in pine plantations.&nbsp;</p> Kristaps Makovskis, Dagnija Lazdina, Dina Popluga Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 01 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0200 HEAVY METAL ACCUMULATION IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF TREES GROWN ON SEWAGE SLUDGE <p>Sewage sludge is a rest product deriving from the wastewater treatment plants. It is rich in nutrients and essential elements. Therefore sludge on-land utilisation can create an added value by recovering energy from biomass produced on marginal lands. However, widespread on-land recycling of sewage sludge might be limited due to high heavy metal content. Health organisations show an increasing concern about the risks posed to the environment and human health as many countries worldwide already are facing the heavy metal contamination problem. In the scientific literature it can be found, that high total heavy metal content is not directly related to an intensive metal uptake by plants. In this study samples were collected from three woody plant species (black locust, silver birch and aspen) growing directly on the sewage sludge in a storage site near Kaunas, Lithuania. Heavy metal content was detected separately in the leaves, stems and roots. It was determined that nearly all analysed heavy metals (lead, chromium, nickel, copper and zinc) were accumulated within normal range despite high total concentrations in the growing media, and only cadmium was accumulated at elevated concentration. Based on bioaccumulation factor, aspen could be considered as a Cd-accumulator and used for phytoremediation purposes.</p> Valdas Paulauskas, Alfreda Kasiulienė Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 09 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0200 BIODEGRADABLE CHELANTS FOR HEAVY METAL REMOVAL FROM SLUDGE AND SOIL-SLUDGE MIXTURES <p>Heavy metal extraction study was performed using five chelating agents with different biodegradability: EDTA, EDDS, MGDA, SCLC and citric acid. Aminopolycarboxylic acids EDDS and MGDA showed high heavy metal extraction capability from sewage sludge and sludge-soil mixtures. According to heavy metal removal efficiency investigated chelants can be ranked in the following order: EDTA≈ EDDS≈ MGDA&gt; CA&gt; SCLC. Extraction efficiency from sludge mixtures with clay soil was markedly lower than from the mixtures with sandy soil. Biodegradability of EDTA, MGDA, EDDS and CA was evaluated measuring BOD in water environment over 28 day period. According to the results of biodegradability test after 28 days the ranking order of the chelants was following: EDDS (99%)&gt; CA (32.4%)&gt; MGDA (29.2%)&gt; EDTA (14.9%). Results showed that significantly easier than EDTA biodegradable chelating agents, such as EDDS and MGDA, can be successfully used for heavy metal removal from sewage sludge as well as metal-contaminated soil.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Valdas Paulauskas, Ernestas Zaleckas, Oleksandr Karnaukh Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 26 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0200 SHORT-TERM IMPACT OF AMMONIUM NITRATE AND WOOD ASH APPLICATION ON GROUND VEGETATION DIVERSITY AND SPECIES COMPOSITION IN DRAINED FORESTS <p>Fertilization is a way of improving tree growth and thus profitability of forestry, however this practice may cause negative side effects, such as loss of biodiversity. Ground vegetation represents a major part of plant biodiversity in forest and it is sensitive to environmental changes. The aim of the study was to characterize a short-term impact of ammonium nitrate and wood ash application on floristic composition and species diversity in conifer and deciduous forests on drained mineral and peat soils. The study was conducted in 6 stands representing <em>Myrtillosa</em>, <em>Myrtillosa turf.mel., Vacciniosa mel. </em>and<em> Vacciniosa turf. mel. </em>forest types. The projective cover of each species was estimated visually, separately for moss, herb and shrub layer. Shannon diversity index was calculated and compared between the plots, where fertilizers were added, and control plots. Results show that species composition corresponds to the respective forest types regardless of the application of fertilizers. In <em>Myrtillosa mel</em>. stands, <em>Myrtillosa turf. mel</em>. birch stand and <em>Vacciniosa mel</em>. stand nitrophilous species were more frequently observed and had a slightly larger projective cover in treatment plots, which could be explained by the impact of fertilization. Species diversity in the moss layer might have lowered as a result of fertilization, whereas no consistent patterns were observed for the herb layer. A repeated survey will show, if changes in ground vegetation persist longer.</p> Guna Petaja, Zaiga Zvaigzne Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Fri, 13 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 EVALUATION OF DOWNY MILDEW (HYALOPERONOSPORA BRASSICAE) INFECTION SEVERITY ON DIFFERENT CRUCIFEROUS OILSEED CROPS <p>Diseases constitute an important economic problem in oilseed rape (<em>Brassica napus</em>) cultivation. Although downy mildew has been counted so far as a minor disease, under intensive cultivation system and short rotation interval, the impact of diseases could increase in the future, especially under predicted more humid northern climatic conditions. This research study is the first report about the severity of downy mildew infection on cruciferous crops in Estonia. During two years (2010 − 2011), downy mildew infection severity was assessed in six different cruciferous crops (<em>B. napus, B. juncea, B. nigra, Sinapis alba, Raphanus sativus, Eruca sativa</em>) in field trials located in Eerika, Tartu County, Estonia. On both study years, four disease assessments were done. Downy mildew infection started a week earlier in 2010, but the overall disease pressure was lower compared to 2011. Based on our field trial results, <em>S. alba</em>, <em>E. sativa</em> and <em>R. sativus</em> plants were significantly more resistant to downy mildew compared to other tested crops. Furthermore, in 2010 downy mildew symptoms were not recorded on two cruciferous species <em>E. sativa</em> and <em>R. sativus</em>. <em>Brassica nigra</em> and <em>B. napus</em> plants were the most susceptible to downy mildew, with especially severe infection in 2011. Based on our two years data, downy mildew can damage foliage on spring oilseed rape (<em>B. napus</em>) and black mustard (<em>B. nigra</em>) in a notable extent. We conclude that downy mildew is an important pathogen, which should be monitored on different oilseed cruciferous crops in Estonia.</p> Eve Runno-Paurson, Peeter Lääniste, Viacheslav Eremeev, Eve Kaurilind, Hanna Hõrak, Ülo Niinemets, Luule Metspalu Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE (HELIANTHUS TUBEROSUS L.) AS ENERGY RAW MATERIAL <p>Jerusalem artichoke is suitable for use in biorefineries due to the very high biomass production and low soil, climate and cultivation requirements. Tubers of this species can be used for the production of methane fermentation or bioethanol. The aboveground part can be used for the production of biomethane, as well as in the direct combustion process or for the production of briquettes and pellets. Of the cultivars tested, Albik and Violet de Rennes proved to be the most useful for energy purposes. An important advantage of Jerusalem artichoke is its resistance to adverse climatic conditions (drought, frost), resistance to diseases and pests and the possibility of self-renewal.</p> Barbara Sawicka, Dominika Skiba, Dominika Skiba, Anna Kiełtyka-Dadasiewicz, Honorata Danilčenko Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Mon, 16 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 ASSESSMENT OF THE AGRARIAN LANDSCAPE STRUCTURE IN THE DEVELOPMENT AREA OF THE MAJOR CITIES OF LITHUANIA <p>Agrarian landscape structure in Lithuania is relatively stable and changes only due to intensive economic activities such as construction of buildings, land reclamation, and afforestation. The changes due to the aforementioned activities are most evident in the development areas of the major cities, which are characterized by the increasing process of chaotic urbanization. The suburban municipalities, bordering the three major cities of Lithuania (Kaunas, Vilnius, Klaipėda), were chosen for the research. To determine areas that were influenced by the urban development among the analyzed cities, the multicriteria analysis method was chosen, which helped to assess the intensity of the suburban area development. The determined areas, which were influenced by the urban development, were divided into three categories, in which the villages of 583 agrarian territories are included. The greatest influence of the urban development on the agrarian landscape is evident in the territories that are closest to the major cities (in the areas of category I) and in which the structure of the components of the agrarian landscape changes mostly by reducing the agricultural land. To ensure a balanced influence of urban development on the agrarian landscape, the average built-up area in the development area of the major cities should not be higher than 20%–30% and the agricultural land area should not be lower than 30%–45%. To preserve the fertile land, the built-up areas should be designed in the agricultural lands with lower productivity.</p> Jolanta Valčiukienė, Daiva Juknelienė, Virginija Atkocevičienė Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 15 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 SEASONALITY OF LITHUANIAN NATURE TOURISM: VISITOR‘S PREFERENCES <p>Seasonality in the tourism sector is described as a change in tourism due to seasonal changes or a temporary change in tourist flows. In Lithuania, the tourism seasonality is recognized as a problem requiring a solution. This study has identified that every visitor/traveller who likes nature, prefers nature-based tourism or has plans to spend some time in nature is facing the tourism seasonality in Lithuania. The results of this survey support the idea that the most popular time for nature trips in Lithuania is summer time or the warm light season of the year. There are several reasons why visitors wish to go out to nature: many visitors hope to get good quality and exciting entertainment or educations, others are expecting for nature's aesthetic and other values, including beautiful landscapes and fresh air. Lithuanians usually choose nature trips with family or friends travelling by car for an average 3-7 days. The most of survey respondents plan trips in advance, search for information on the Internet, social networks, or use the recommendations of friends to visit one or another natural object, and almost do not use the services of tourism companies. Interest in one or another natural object and its attendance is primarily determined by weather conditions, activities and educations adapted to the exact season. This survey has shown that people wishing to choose non-seasonal natural tourism facing many problems. Depending on the season, tourism infrastructure could be more suited to all seasons, as well as respondents expect new educations adapted to different seasons or their indoor alternatives. In the recent years, more frequent extreme climate periods (heat, rainfall in summer, cold or wet periods in winter) have begun to change, most often reduce, visitor flows.</p> Iveta Varnagirytė-Kabašinskienė, Ieva Mačiulytė Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Wed, 11 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 SUITABILITY OF POTATO VARIETIES AND BREEDING MATERIAL FOR GROWING UNDER STRESSFUL CONDITIONS IN NORTH KURZEME REGION OF LATVIA <p>Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is mostly suitable for growing in moderate climate conditions at temperature 20 ° C. Yields are influenced by many factors: soil characterization, available nutrients, distribution of pests and weeds, agrotechnology, genotype or variety and climatic conditions during the vegetation period. In recent years summary of meteorological conditions (precipitation and air temperature), showed that stressful conditions during the vegetation period had a diverse influence on the growth and development of plants.&nbsp; Excess or lack of humidity in soil or drought and heat affected the size and shape of the potato tubers. The heat stress is the problem of agriculture in many regions of the world in the last years.</p> <p>The aim of the study was to evaluate cultivars and clones from the breeding material under the stress conditions at the Stende Research Centre. The field trials were set up due to project of the Latvian Ministry of Agriculture: "Evaluation of breeding material to implement integrated and organic agriculture crop production technologies"(2015-2018). The article summarizes results of nine potato clones and nine varieties in both integrated and organic systems during 2017-2018, when 2018 was one of the driest and hottest in the last 100 years. The evaluation of the varieties and breeding material phenological phases in two years showed that germination and flowering differed from year to year.&nbsp; Due to hot and dry weather conditions flowering was weak for several varieties and the bud flowering was observed. In 2018 germination for some varieties was slower compared to the previous year, but for many varieties (‘Lenora’, ‘Prelma’, ‘Imanta’) and breeding material germination was not delayed (Table 1). The earlyest germination and flowering were observed for variety 'Monta'. Earlier germination compared to other varieties and clones was recorded to S01085-21 and S03067-33 and the variety ‘Rigonda’.&nbsp; In the organic field earlier germination was observed for the varieties 'Rigonda', 'Monta', 'Prelma' and clones S01085-21, S07169 -35.</p> <p>The yield of varieties and breeding material lines in both years was good but still lower tuber yields were obtained in the integrated growing system and only one line (S01085-21) and variete ‘Gundega’ had significantly higher yield in comparison 2017. In the organic growing system tuber yields of all varieties and breeding material lines were significantly lower than the 2017 year. Yield reduction is not significant for 3 breeding material lines: S10063-128, 19922.29 and S2008-6.5.</p> Lidija Vojevoda, Ilze Skrabule Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 26 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0200 THE USE OF ZEOLITE FOR WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN COLD WATER RECIRCULATION AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS <p>This study was performed to evaluate use of zeolite &nbsp;for water quality management in cold water recirculating aquaculture system. The system was reared Arctic charr (<em>Salvelinus alpinus</em>) and Hybrid char (<em>Salvelinus fontinalis × Salvelinus alpinus</em>) fry. Fish biomass in the reservoirs was distributed as follows: Arctic charr accounted for 7.32 kg at a density of 23.74 kg∙m<sup>-3</sup>, and hybrid charr accounted for 7.78 kg at a density of 26.91 kg∙m<sup>-3</sup>. &nbsp;After increasing the feed rate and documenting water quality studies, a vast increase of ammonium and nitrite concentration was noticed in the rearing tanks. Natural zeolite, known as clinoptilolite with a cation exchange capacity (CEC) of 1.20–1.50 mol.∙kg<sup>-1</sup>, was used to reduce the amounts of these hazardous substances in the rearing tanks. &nbsp;&nbsp;Zeolite was used to decrease the increased concentration of ammonia and nitrites, which were reduced by 22.7% and 16.7%, respectively, during the study period. These results suggest that zeolite is suitable for water quality management in cold water recirculating aquaculture system with as little of an investment as possible.</p> Gražina Žibienė, Alvydas Žibas Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 10 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 CONTRIBUTION OF THE COOPERATION BETWEEN AGRICULTURE AND TOURISM FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT <p>The main goal of rural development is to raise the economic, social and cultural levels of all individuals living in rural areas. Rural development, which is considered to be an important tool in the fight against poverty, increases the quality of life of rural population and improves the work and living conditions of the regions where these people live. With rural development, it is aimed to increase both agricultural and non-agricultural incomes. Undoubtedly, agriculture is the most important source of income for people living in rural areas. However, in recent years, those living in rural areas also generate significant incomes from non-agricultural activities. Rural tourism activities are an important source of income for people living in rural areas. Thanks to rural tourism, entrepreneurs are making investments in rural areas. Thus, income growth is experienced in rural areas and employment is increasing. Rural tourism also makes important contributions to the sustainability of the local culture. On the other hand, rural tourism is an alternative field of activity where farmers can make better use of their free time. Through rural tourism, rural-urban migration can be prevented. This is important for the sustainability of rural areas. The current study primarily discusses the concepts of rural development and rural tourism. The interaction between agriculture and tourism is examined and the benefits of rural tourism are uncovered. The results of the study have shown that rural tourism activities have positive effects on rural development.</p> Tayfun Çukur, Nuray Kızılaslan, Figen Çukur Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sat, 29 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0200 EDUCATION AS BASIS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT <p>The main objective of the article is to present the level of education in some selected countries, and to explain how education determines a sustainable growth. Education is the main factor to achieve both economic and employment growth. At the same time, education plays an important role for a sustainable improvement of the standard of living in the world. Supporting education is also one of the aims of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (Goal 4), but education appears in a number of other SDG targets too. The countries that allocate the most capital for education are Norway, Denmark, Sweden, United Kingdom, Belgium, Finland (over 6.7% of GDP). The share of GDP allocated for education in Romania is only 2.7. This directly affects both the physical conditions for carrying out educational and research activities in school units and the qualitative level of the educational act. The Pearson correlation coefficient (r) between the real GDP/capita (VAR01) and share of GDP for education (VAR02) for our study is 0.694, which again underlines the close correlation between the allocation of funds for education and research and the level of development from a country. The Pearson correlation coefficient (r) between supporting education from GDP and top 100 universities is relatively low (r = 0.287), reflecting an insufficient correlation between the two variables. As a result, the education system in a country must be adjusted and supported both financially and through the adoption of viable policy decisions that will ensure increased performance in the educational system.</p> Andrea Feher, Tabita Adamov, Manuela Dora Orboi, Miroslav Raicov, Adrian Băneș Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 SIMULATION OF MANAGEMENT ENHANCEMENT SCENARIOS FOR THE JSC LATVIAN STATE FORESTS <p>The expansion of global economy and the rise of living standards are set to force the world’s consumption of raw material to nearly double by 2060, thus consumption of wood resources is forecasted to increase more than twofold. In Latvia, forests cover 52% of the total area. The total forest area in Latvia has continued to grow since the beginning of the 20<sup>th</sup> century – in 1923 the forests covered only 27% of the country’s area; accordingly, the question is whether the value of forests continues to grow proportionally. One of the criteria for determining the value of forest is forest capital. A higher economic value of forest reflects the forest’s capability to produce more wood, and this allows generating higher revenues from forestry. It is the value of plantations of certain tree species as well as the quality of wood produced that increase the price of wood and consequently result in higher revenues.</p> <p>The largest supplier of wood in Latvia is the state-owned joint stock company Latvian State Forests (JSC LSF), which managed 1.6 million hectares of forestland in 2018. In 2018, 12.8 million cubic metres of roundwood were harvested in Latvia, of which 6 million cubic metres were harvested by the JSC LSF. Therefore, the <strong>research aims</strong> to design and assess potential scenarios of increasing the value of forest capital for the JSC LSF. The authors simulated potential scenarios for the JSC LSF in order to identify changes to be made in the current forest management pattern with the aim of increasing the value of forest capital. A higher value of forest capital would also mean greater public attention to the future use of existing resources. Calculations of the economic value of forests were carried out to identify necessary changes to be made in the management of state-owned forests in Latvia and to compare several management enhancement scenarios. The potential scenarios were assessed by five qualified experts, academics, representatives of business and public administration by employing the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The experts rated the possible scenarios for enhancing forest management relatively equally, giving slightly higher ratings to the potential scenario of quotation of the national forest management company on the stock exchange. The value of forest capital was calculated for each of the potential scenarios using the most commonly used net present value method (NPV). It was concluded that the potential scenario of lowering the diameter threshold for felling trees by two centimetres would lead to the greatest increase in the value of forest capital.</p> Rolands Feldmanis, Irina Pilvere Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 LIVING LABS – INNOVATE BUSINESS MODELS FOR RURAL REGIONS <p>Rural regions are confronted with several challenges, such as depopulation, overageing or a declining economic importance of the primary sector. Thus, innovative efforts are required to make such regions more attractive and to maintain and further develop social and physical infrastructure. HORIZON 2020 project LIVERUR aims at strengthening rural regions by expanding innovative business models set up as Living Labs, which are user-centred and open-innovation ecosystems. Living Labs establish a sustainable stakeholder partnership, where users, policy-makers, companies and researchers engage in a long-term collaboration. Within LIVERUR, suitable rural business models are identified and will be developed towards the Living Lab concept. Therefore, a framework with a criteria system with the most relevant LIVERUR topics was developed, following a literature review on important documents of the United Nations and EU as well as scientific publications. This criteria system focuses on four main criteria: 1. Living Lab approach, 2. Economic sustainability, 3. Social sustainability and 4. Ecological sustainability. Each criterion is supplemented with 3 to 6 concrete indicators, which help to create a comprehensive view on sustainable business models linked to the Living Lab approach. The results show 20 business models within 13 pilot regions, which are largely on a high level of development, but most of them still have potential for further development. The presented framework is easy in its application and helps to assess and illustrate business models regarding Living Lab and sustainability characteristics. It is also helpful to highlight a business model´s potential for development.</p> Heidelinde Grüneis, Sigrid Egartner, Julia Niedermayr, Karin Heinschink, Klaus Wagner Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sat, 29 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0200 POP-UP RURAL SOCIALLY-INNOVATIVE HUBS – CASE STUDY FROM CROATIA <p>This paper presents formation of the first pop-up rural socially-innovative hubs in Croatia through the cooperation of higher education institutions, civil society organizations, students, alumni and local people in the specific rural communities of Međimurje and Split-Dalmatia County. The main purpose of the hubs is to develop, test and validate an inclusive and participative program of service learning in the field of sustainable rural development. Pop-up rural hubs are mobile model of service learning that functions as an occasional event in the local community, to which all interested initiators are invited to join. From the sociological perspective, the most important aim of this project is to strenghten rural local communities through the launch of socio-innovative sustainable micro-entrepreneurial activities by using local resources. Through pop-up rural hubs, business ideas and plans are tested, and through additional mentoring and business plan, initiators were able to send the product or service on the market. Although the project is not over yet, the preliminary results show that pop-up rural socially-innovative hubs, within a period of one year project duration, stress the differencies and similarities between local communities in different parts of rural Croatia, enhance human capital and have a social impact on higher education institutions, civil society organizations, students, alumni and local people.</p> Sandra Kantar, Kristina Svržnjak Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 01 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0200 THEMING DISCURSE IN VILLAGE DEVELPOMENT <p>The issues of the development of thematic villages are mostly investigated in Poland, Austria, Lithuania. Village development theming is usually defined as a strategy or model. It acts as a vehicle for village renewal, enabling even small villages to develop successfully in the age of globalization. An experiential marketing strategy guides village development towards sustainability and helps to ensure integration between village environmental, economic and social development dimensions. Thematic villages play a heuristic role, they "push" locals and customers out of established spaces, village storytelling schemes, and encourage the search for alternative life, behavior and business models. <em>This research aim </em>was achieved: to determine the characteristics of the village theming development: thematic space, integrated (complex) consumption, co-creation, recreation, interests (needs), experience. Thematic analysis, collation and other methods of scientific literature were applied. Representatives of the various stakeholders must be involved in the village development theming characteristics package planning, management and control processes. There is a two-way communication between the development of various thematic objects in economic, social and environmental terms and the creation of a thematic space which must serve not only the interests of the visitors but also the inhabitants.</p> Ingrida Kazlauskienė, Vilma Atkočiūnienė Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 09 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0200 ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE SCOPE OF GOVERNMENT: DO WE HAVE A GENERATION GAP? <p>Today an impact of government on citizens’ daily life is bigger than ever before. The extent to which people support governmental actions is related with their support of the whole political system. The scope of government varies across different states as well as people’s attitudes towards it also vary considerably. <br>The scope of government, according O. Borre and E. Scarbrough (1998), is referred to both the range of government activity and the degree to which governments engage in activities, such as spending on services, taxing, regulating citizens and regulating their behaviour, providing resources for defence, improving the environment and sometimes doing nothing what concerns societal problems. Depending on the role of government in economy and social sphere we can distinguish how small or big the government is. <br>The ISSP Role of Government module data provides a wide range of variables indicating people’s attitudes towards different elements of governments’ actions. Recent research, e. g. a study of Pew Research – The Generation Gap in American Politics (March, 2018) – shows the important difference in generational attitudes towards the scope of government. According to this study two younger USA generations, Millennials and Gen Xers, stand apart from the two older cohorts, Baby Boomers and Silents – especially Millennials (those, who were born in 1981 and later) have increasingly liberal outlook. Thus, the main question of this article - does the same generational divide might be observed in other countries and what are the main differences in generational attitudes towards the scope of government from the cross-national perspective?</p> Algis Krupavičius, Ligita Šarkutė Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 10 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 HOW CAN A RURAL AREA DRIVE THE NETWORKING OF EXISTING BUSINESSES WITH IT SUPPORT? <p>In order to be innovative in a rural area, it is necessary to act in an extraordinarily cooperative fashion, partly because the people living there know each other well, but also because they want to remain there, share their lives with the neighbours and do not simply change homes to start fresh in another part of town, as it happens in larger cities. The appropriate support of informational management regarding cooperative behaviour is in the focus of this paper. Our selection of research methods includes the execution of study projects to the subjects of innovation, It- and Information Management for an cooperative network, the development of an app to encourage young people to stay in the pertaining village, to the publishing of four books concerning communication and cooperation on the basis of original research, surveys, discussions with residents, meetings with the management of small enterprises as well as with the administration and colleagues of universities and the evaluation of the collected data through statistical methods and processes. We have found that the introduction of regular meetings of a variety of people with the task to think about new ideas and to decide on which one will be realized first, to give support in different ways before, during and after the project conclusion in combination with suitable Information Management is able to reduce the fear of digitalization and bind the focused power of concentration to the project. In conclusion we find that it is possible to augment the communal mind set to be innovative and creative in order to make rural living more pleasant.</p> Elvira Kuhn, Herbert Küstner Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 01 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0200 GENDER CHALLENGES FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY <p>The article is devoted to the problem of gender inequality on rural areas and argued the necessity of forming gender sensitive rural development policy. Based on existing theories of institutionalism, the authors characterized gender as a social institute, forming the structure of rural society. The importance of gender equality for progressive rural growth of rural areas, effective use of women’s human capital in development of rural communities is underlined. Methodological frameworks of research are formed on the basis of rural development, gender economy and institutional theories. Adopted methodological approach of United Nations Development Program to gender inequality index calculation is used for integrated evaluation the gender inequality in reproductive health, political empowerment, and economic activity on labor market in rural areas. Research results indicate permanent character of the gender inequality problem in rural society and it dependence from situation in rural economy system. Gender asymmetries in economic activity and educational attainment of rural population, it participation in political initiatives and decision-making, demographic processes caused the regional differentiation of gender inequality problem. Indicated gender problems are characterized as the challenges for growth of rural areas and should be taken into account in the process of forming rural development policy, transforming it from gender neutral to gender sensitive. Key points of such a policy are implementation of the gender mainstreaming concept in rural development policy; forming an inclusive model of rural economy development and social cohesion; diversification of rural labor market; stimulating transfer of knowledge and innovation.</p> Nataliia Kutsmus, Oleksandr Kovalchuk Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 15 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 THE CHANGING SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE TOCHIKAIRYOKU IN JAPAN: A CASE STUDY OF THE IWATE CHUBU TOCHIKAIRYOKU <p>The purpose of this paper is to report on the changing social structure and function of the <em>Tochikairyoku </em>(Land Improvement Associations) in Kitakami, Iwate Prefecture, located in North East Japan. This case study was conducted by interviewing executive members of the Iwate Chubu <em>Tochikairyoku</em> and the farming membership working the land and by collecting and examining all available data pertaining to the changes affecting the functioning of this organization. The <em>Tochikairyoku </em>is a non-profit public organization of and for farmers engaged in agriculture or animal husbandry and serves to liaise between farmers and central and local governments. All the costs of management and staff are borne by the members. All decisions to be undertaken must be ratified by the members. The results of the case study indicate that there has been a significant consolidation in the number of <em>Tochikairyoku</em> and farms owing to the dwindling rural population and the ageing of those actively farming the land. Another major factor has been the recent changes in the Japanese Government’s policy that now favours bigger agricultural units over smaller farmers. The <em>Tochikairyoku </em>are instrumental in promoting the new government policies by maintaining irrigation infrastructure and improving the quality of arable land in order to encourage the leasing of land from the smaller farmers to the bigger farm units. The new 2018 Law has effected changes in the election of executive members of the<em> Tochikairyoku </em>to include representatives of agribusiness interests and has introduced a reform of the <em>Tochikairyoku’s </em>accounting practices to make them more transparent.</p> Wenjing Liu-Wuerz Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Mon, 04 May 2020 00:00:00 +0300 INFLUENCE OF SUSTAINABLE INVOLVEMENT ON INTENT AND SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE BEHAVIOR OF TOURISTS: CASE OF HOTELS IN THE RURAL DISTRICT OF ASNI <p>Awareness of the requirements of sustainable development has become increasingly important in terms of responsible consumption, respect for the environment and promotion of local economies. The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of sustainable involvement and buying intentionof tourists on their socially responsible behavior. An empirical study was conducted with a sample of 113 tourists in Morocco. Validation of hypotheses through bi-varied analysis shows that sustainable involvement and intention have a positive impact on socially responsible behavior. In addition, the age, gender and marital status variables have a significant moderating effect on causality links between groups.</p> Youssef Makloul, Jaouad Chaabt, Rasa Pranskūnienė Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sat, 29 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0200 THE ENVIRONMENT FOR ENTREPRENEURIAL ATTITUDES IN POPULATIONS OF RURAL AREAS IN POLAND FORMERLY OCCUPIED BY STATE-OWNED FARMS <p>Despite the lapse of 30 years since the state system transformation in Poland was started, the rural areas in Poland that used to be occupied by state-owned farms continue to experience many complex economic and social problems. The state reforms, which for example led to the dissolution of all state-owned farms (in Polish, <em>Państwowe Gospodarstwa Rolne</em>, PGR), have had a significant effect on the formation of the institutional system in rural Poland. The existence and then liquidation of PGR affected not only the financial standing of large populations but also instilled in many a&nbsp;sense of entitlement, leading to the so-called learned hopelessness. An investigation into entrepreneurial attitudes shows that as many as 71.60% of the respondents equate ‘being entrepreneurial’ with ‘starting own business’. Despite the difficult situation on the labour market, only 12.35% of the interviewed persons have tried to start their own companies after state-farms were dissolved. The main determinant of such a low level of entrepreneurship among the respondents, in their opinion, was the lack of own funds, as this was indicated by 49.38% of the surveyed population. This attitude is also manifested in the answers concerning expectations towards public administration – 82.10% assumed that the state should be responsible for providing direct financial support. The results of this study into entrepreneurial attitudes as well as previous investigations among residents living in rural areas formely occupied by state farms confirm marginal interest in starting business activity among these populations.</p> Renata Marks-Bielska, Damian Opalach Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 19 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0300 INNOVATIVE AND CROSS-SECTORAL CLUSTERS AS FACILITATORS OF VALUE ADDED CHAINS IN AGRICULTURE - SMART AGRO CLUSTERS IN ROMANIA <p>Clusters play an important role in driving competitiveness, innovation and jobs creation in the EU. Romania currently has successful clusters in various economic sectors and services, including 7 clusters in agro-food. Agriculture has been and remains the support of the human existence, which is an important pillar of the Romanian rural economy. The agro-food sector had oscillating evolutions in the post-accession period, mainly generated by the need to get in line with the EU requirements. Stimulating smart technology assimilation across all economic sectors including agro-food value chains, promoting enterprise growth and clusters 4.0 is critical to many EU Member States. Partnerships between countries, regions, cities and clusters are essential in the next industrial modernization process, based on innovation. Clusters 4.0 calls for development of a generation of advanced cluster policies to respond to these new industrial challenges by facilitating cross-sectoral value chains, fostering internationalization, stimulating inter-regional investment and accelerating entrepreneurship and skills in digital production, environmental production, circular economy, service innovation and creative economy. In order to be ready for the future, clusters must be geared towards creating a smart value chains, international cooperation and cross-sectoral partnerships. This research paper proposes a model &nbsp;as a tool for agro-clusters to become “smart”, also this proposal providing information on the most important steps in the creation and development of smart agro-clusters. The used research methodology was based on analysis and synthesis of the information on the economic and social aspects of the development of the agro-food sector and of clusters in Romania. In conclusion, the authors of this paper wanted to emphasize the necessity of the development of smart agro-clusters for the future smart specialization of the regions.</p> Cornelia Muraru Ionel, Sebastian Lucian Muraru, Oana-Diana Cristea, Paula Condruz Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sat, 29 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0200 COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT IN LOCAL DEVELOPMENT: THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT APPROACHES <p>The aim of the study is to identify and describe community development approaches particularly emphasizing community-led local development as it dominates in the European Union as part of the rural development policy. The research is based on the literature review on community development approaches and community involvement in rural development. The most frequently used approaches are the following: community-led local development, community-led development, community driven development, community capacity building asset-based community development, and community economic development. The author concludes that the involvement of communities in development processes is promoted through specific programs implemented by policy makers and initiatives by communities and non-governmental organizations. Community involvement in development is influenced by many factors, such as democratic traditions and societal experience, the distribution of power and the exchange of knowledge between the social agents involved in development processes, the availability of resources and the skills to use them. Community projects are another way in which local agents can participate in improving the quality of life and solving local problems.</p> Liga Paula Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 09 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0200 DECISION-MAKING PROCESS AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL ACTORS THE CASE OF A METHANISATION UNIT IN THE NORTH OF FRANCE <p>Currently, the agricultural sector is facing new challenges. In addition to meeting the population's food needs in sufficient quantity and quality, it must fulfill new energy and environmental functions as well as other non-food uses such as biomaterials and biomolecules. At the regional scale, there is an increase of non-food valorization projects of biomass, including the methanisation plants. In France, the methanisation sector is in full swing with a national target of 1,000 plants by 2020, as defined in the Energy Methanisation Nitrogen Energy plan (EMAA). The development of methanisation sector generates a regional dynamic involving different stakeholders and linking various business sectors. Then the regional methanisation becomes a collective process in which farmers, industrialists, waste managers and local communities are engaged. The objective of this communication consists on understanding the socio-economic conditions in which this kind of regional projects have emerged. For this purpose, the “<em>Centrale de Biométhane du Vermandois</em>”, a regional methanisation plant in the north of France was studied. This analysis contributes to identify the nature of the expectations of the actors engaged, to better understand the governance in place and the decision-making processes surrounding the project. The results show the success factors but also the difficulties of implementation and development of the project. The results also highlight the main motivations of farmers to join the biogas project.</p> Miravo Rakotovao, Lucile Godard, Loïc Sauvée Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Mon, 04 May 2020 00:00:00 +0300 IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEMS OF FINANCIAL AUTONOMY IN LITHUANIAN RURAL MUNICIPALITIES <p>The scientific problem addressed by the article is the lack of the ways for identification and solution of the issues of financial autonomy in rural municipalities. The aim of the article is to identify the problem areas of financial autonomy in Lithuanian rural municipalities. The problem areas of financial autonomy in rural municipalities have been identified under the methods of scientific literature analysis, document analysis, <span style="text-decoration: line-through;">and </span>statistical data analysis, and comparative analysis. The problematics of definition of the phenomenon of financial autonomy of rural municipalities has been noticed; problem areas of expenditure, revenue, financial transfers and borrowing in the municipalities have been identified. The empirical study of the data on 50 Lithuanian rural municipalities reflecting their respective financial autonomy in the period 2014-2018 (municipality revenue structure, revenue per capita, the dynamics of the share of the personal income tax (PIT)) revealed that the major share of the revenues of rural municipalities is collected by means of the PIT. There are four donor municipalities in Lithuania – Vilnius city, Kaunas city, Klaipėda city and Neringa municipalities – with their PITs used to support rural municipalities. The central authorities of Lithuania apply inter-budgetary reallocation of funds in order to introduce the financial equalization measures to adjust for the unequal allocation of potential financial resources between the municipalities with the ultimate objective of eliminating the territorial, social and economic disparities between the municipalities. However, the revenue and expenditure remain unequalized between the municipalities.</p> Laima Skauronė, Deimena Montvydaitė Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 01 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0200 IMPACT OF ICT USE ON TIME STRUCTURE OF ADVISORS WORK AT THE LITHUANIAN AGRICULTURAL ADVISORY SERVICE <p>Information and communication technologies (ICT) already several decades is an integral part of business management and accounting data processing. Scientific publications most cases deal with increase the efficiency of calculations and information processing, improvement the quality of accounting information systems, but very little attention is paid to changes in the behaviour of accounting staff resulted by the implementation of modern information processing technologies. Scientific problem is the measuring of impact of the modern information and communication technologies on behaviour of advisors in accounting. Paper provides the results of theoretical analysis of impact, made by ICT on changes in registration and processing of accounting transactions and competences are necessary for accounting specialist. Empirical investigation bases on analysis of the data received during questioning consultants in accounting and economics, working at the Lithuanian Agricultural Advisory Service about the structure of working time allocated for various tasks and on changes in the structure of working time due to the use of ICT.</p> Linas Stabingis Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 09 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0200 ASSESSMENT OF RURAL SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE SERVICES IN LITHUANIA AND POLAND IN THE CONTEXT OF GREEN ECONOMY <p>This article reveals the importance of social infrastructure (hereinafter SI) services to rural people, overall rural development and its interface with green economy in Poland and Lithuania. Social infrastructure services are recognized as basic services which are useful and used by people in everyday life regardless of where people live. Development of these services is a key issue when it is analysed in the rural context because it includes various services for local community, facilities, relationships and networks which is not always the focus even in scientific discourse. Social infrastructure services can be considered as important element of rural people integration, fostering their capabilities and acknowledging human rights. The research question of this article is – how the importance of social infrastructure services in rural areas appears? The aim of the research is to disclose the importance of social infrastructure services in rural areas. There were used both theoretical and empirical research methods exploring the evaluations about of social infrastructure services in Poland and Lithuania by using empirical data from European Social Survey. The research results disclosed that the differences between two countries are not very strong and between rural and urban areas are slightly noticeable in some aspects. In Poland the state of education services in rural areas and small towns was rated little higher than in Lithuania, while perception of health services is much better in Lithuania, especially in big cities. Lithuanian residents trust the police more than Polish people but their feeling of safety is noticeably lower.</p> Maciej Stawicki, Gintare Vaznoniene Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 01 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0200 THE ROLE OF INNOVATION IN SUSTAINABLE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT: CASE OF LATVIA <p>Innovation – it is a term that we use for decades, but true meaning of this term changes also for decades, according to dynamic environment we are living in. There is now beginning of the 4th industrial revolution and what has been said in World Economic forum, issues are not about technologies anymore, they are about society. Innovation and entrepreneurship in regions is one of essential tools, in added value creation in economics and in development in national level. It is very important to encourage creativity, new ways of thinking and continuous process of learning of individuals.</p> <p>There are some different approaches how to measure competitiveness of state economy and competitiveness in regional level. Statistical data shows situation from point of view in national level, Regional level and local community level have to be researched detailed, and every situation, which can make impact on level above, have to be taken into account. Research methods, used for these studies were analysis of scientific papers, strategic planning documents and guidelines of EU and Latvia and survey of inhabitants of local community what are their opinion about participation in the processes to make changes in development of region and local community. Main results were related with issue, that tenants of region at very low level evaluate impact of state as institution and management system in national level, better evaluation of local government institutions, but at the same time there is lack of desire to participate actively in processes of local community to encourage changes in regional level.</p> <p>Key words: <em>innovation, regional development</em>.</p> Dace Štefenberga, Biruta Sloka Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sat, 29 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0200 AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT POLICIES AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORKS; PROPOSED MAPPING FOR WINE TOURISM IN GEORGIA <p>The research paper discusses the growing importance of rural tourism and community based development as a means of sustainable regional development. Growing number of international visitors in Georgia, as well as high agriculture dependence of local population, requires the Government to have a clear long-term strategic vision for tourism and rural development policies. Understanding of the local community role in the sustainable tourism development will enhance the decentralization processes. Experience of developed countries like Italy and German, Check republic, New Zealand, etc. shows that in the wake of the emergence of rural tourism, many countries changed and harmonized policies that reflected modification in national regulations and development strategies. The Georgia’s favorable climate and soil have historically shaped agriculture one of its most productive economic sectors. Nevertheless, nowadays the sector does not provide favorable economic benefits to the local population. As a promising component, research paper identifies rural tourism as a central stimulator for agriculture sector adding strength to a traditional poor rural economy. Analysis of various existing policy initiatives in Georgia shows urgent need for harmonization of policy documents and local community involvement.</p> Matsatso Tepnadze Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 01 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0200 MAKING REGIONAL FOOD SYSTEMS MORE SUSTAINABLE <p>This paper analyses and compares regional food systems in Latvia and Lithuania from the perspective of sustainable food security and poses three questions: (i) what are the general food system characteristics and drivers of change in Latvia and Lithuania? (ii) how are the regional food systems constructed and performing? (iii) what are the conditions and pathways for regional food systems to become more sustainable?&nbsp; The paper examines in-depth the food systems in two regions – Pierīga region in Latvia and Vilnius region in Lithuania. The research is carried out within the framework of the EU projects TRANSMANGO and SALSA, and the Latvian Council of Sciences project SINFO. We find that food chain concentration and the interests of big food industries and retailers drive food systems in Latvia and Lithuania while civic and consumer-driven initiatives are becoming more important in stimulating a transition towards sustainable diets. The regional food systems are a complex intertwinement between the agro-industrial, proximity, domestic, and ecological subsystems. The pathways towards more sustainable regional food systems are difficult to negotiate and enforce as they require collaboration among various stakeholders who have different agendas. The long-term prospects of the regional food systems in terms of social and economic sustainability cannot be viewed in isolation from the demographic trends in the region, the steady depopulation in rural areas and efforts in strengthening urban-rural synergies.</p> Talis Tisenkopfs, Sandra Šūmane, Anda Adamsone-Fiskovica, Emils Kilis, Vilma Atkočiūnienė Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 19 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0300 INTERNATIONAL TRADE IMPACT ON GLOBAL WARMTH IN TEXTILE AND CLOTHING INDUSTRY <p>In the last decade we can observe changes in the fashion industry due to the rising demand of textile and clothing products in Europe. We investigate its sustainability implications by re-calculating carbon emissions and addressing each countries responsibility rather than current traditional way of calculating CO2 emissions. A multi-regional input-output model is built to calculate carbon emissions embodied in trade in EU textile and clothing industry from 2000 to 2016. World Input-Output Database and other databases are used for the recounting of CO2 emissions embodied in EU textile and clothing international trade. The results show that 1) Germany and United Kingdom were biggest EU CO2 emission importers in 2000 and 2016 what makes them biggest contributors to global CO2 pollution in textile and clothing industry in Europe. 2) India and China has big direct emission coefficients and perform under low energy efficiency levels compared to Turkey 3) Higher direct carbon emission coefficient result in a higher CO2 imports. 4) Increasing textile and clothing products imports result in higher CO2 emission imports. Therefore in order to reduce carbon emissions producing countries should invest in “low-carbon” industries and might regulate textile and clothing products imports.</p> Ignas Valodka, Vytautas Snieska Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 WELLBEING IN RURAL AREAS OF LITHUANIA: FINDINGS FROM THE EUROPEAN SOCIAL SURVEY <p>This article reports on the evaluation of the wellbeing of rural people in Lithuania. Literature analysis and empirical findings suggest that research on wellbeing has received scant attention, especially at the local level in Lithuania. Although, to date, some research has been carried out on other specific factors of wellbeing such as belonging to a particular social group, wellbeing in the city, or wellbeing related to job environment, etc., far too little attention has been paid to socio-demographic variables. These limitations call for a more comprehensive discussion and analysis of the situation of a wellbeing and its tendencies in rural areas. The aim of this research is to evaluate the relationship between wellbeing and socio-demographic characteristics of residents of rural areas in Lithuania. Statistical calculations evaluating the wellbeing of rural people were made by using data from the last Round 8 of the European Social Survey. The findings show that the wellbeing of rural people is related to socio- demographic characteristics. People living in big cities of Lithuania rate their happiness higher than those living in towns or small cities and rural areas; residents of rural areas of Lithuania who live with children are happier and more satisfied with life than those living without children at household grid; weak and negative, but statistically significant, correlations between happiness and age, and satisfaction with life and age were observed; younger residents in rural areas of Lithuania are happier and more satisfied with life in comparison to older ones; the longer people study, the happier and more satisfied with life they are; divorced are less happy and satisfied with life than those who have never been married as well as those who are legally married or are widows/widowers; people who study are happier and more satisfied with life than those who work, are unemployed or retired.</p> <p><strong><em>Key words: </em></strong><em>Wellbeing, rural areas, happiness, satisfaction with life, European social survey.</em></p> Gintarė Vaznonienė, Gabija Jarašiūnaitė-Fedosejeva Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 15 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 NEW VIEW TO THE LIVING CONDITIONS IN RURAL AREAS <p>Human living conditions are the opportunity to meet his everyday needs in the field of housing, trade, gastronomy, living services, health care, education, culture, leisure. In order to offer a new perspective on living conditions, we have linked them to rural social infrastructure. The purpose of the article is to present of the ways of defining the concept of living conditions indicated in the literature. To achieve the main goal, the following research tasks were formulated: (1) to indicate of similarities between definitions and different elements (2) propose a new approach to defining living conditions (from a local point of view, for rural areas). These questions guide our research work in order&nbsp;to gain a better understanding about how living conditions in rural areas develop. The main research methods were used: analysis and generalization of scientific literature and documents, abstraction method, logical and systematical reasoning, graphic presentation of comparison, abstracts and other methods. The research results disclosed that the living conditions could be highly affected by other spheres of life; highly diverse&nbsp;requires considering the subjective perceptions and assessments of the people who live and work in these rural area. A new approach to defining living conditions in rural areas is to relate living conditions to the social infrastructure.</p> Agnieszka Wojewódzka-Wiewiórska, Vilma ATKOČIŪNIENĖ Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 01 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0200 BLOCKCHAIN AS A TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION OF FAMILY HOMESTEAD SETTLEMENTS <p>Human community, whose behavior is determined by the influence of biological and social systems, the ability to realize and evaluate the results of its activities, orientation, strategic decisions, to ensure the sustainable development of the ecosystem, in a context of increasing the factor of limited resources (energy, materials, information) is transformed into intellectualization public relations and institutions. Rural development in the context of decentralization has led to the search for effective public administration mechanisms. The purpose of the study is to establish a mechanism for improving the territorial communities management technology on the example of Family Homesteads. The research methodology is based on structured interviews and unstructured conversations with the inhabitants of family homesteads, leadership of local self-government and experts in the field of rural development. Activation of the processes of rural development through the implementation of the idea of "Family Homestate" involves the participation of the population in the normative regulation (the adoption of the relevant law); assistance in the development of new settlements in rural areas by changing the status of the land, creating a land bank; activation of activity of public organizations registered in territorial communities, organization of settlements at the level of territorial communities, including the exchange of experience, coordination of activities in the middle of the movement, establishment of positive relations between the local population and immigrants and others like that. The advantages of the practice of public administration of the territory are established with the help of blockchain technology, which allows to reduce administration costs and promote resource participation.</p> Valentyna Yakobchuk, Mariia Plotnikova Copyright (c) 2020 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 19 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0300 THE EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF AMINO ACIDS ON THEIR CONTENT AND COMPOSITION IN WINTER WHEAT GRAIN <p>Field experiments were carried out at the Experimental Station of Vytautas Magnus University (54º52′ N, 23º49′ E) in Lithuania. Winter wheat was grown on the background of N<sub>150</sub>P<sub>90</sub>K<sub>90 </sub>mineral fertilization and was additionally foliar-fertilized with different concentrations of amino acid solutions (0.5-3.0%) at stem elongation and heading stages. The study was aimed to establish protein content as well as quantitative and qualitative distribution of amino acids in winter wheat grain as influenced by fertilization with different concentrations of amino acids.</p> <p>Experimental evidence showed that solutions with different concentrations of amino acids applied at winter wheat stem elongation and heading stages increased grain protein content and total amino acids contents. Plants, fertilized with amino acids solutions at stem elongation stage accumulated higher protein content by on average 4.8%, at heading stage by 4.5% compared with the grain protein content of plants that had not received amino acids fertilization. The total amino acids content in winter wheat grain in response to amino acids applied at stem elongation stage increased by on average 2.0 g kg<sup>-1</sup>, at heading stage by 5.3 g kg<sup>-1</sup>. Nonessential and essential amino acids content in winter wheat grain was significantly increased by 2.5 and 3.0% amino acids solutions, applied at stem elongation stage by 0.5, 1.0, 1.5% amino acids solutions applied at heading stage. Winter wheat fertilization with amino acids solutions at stem elongation stage mostly increased the content of glutamic acid, at heading stage mostly increased the contents of glutamic, aspartic, valine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, methionine, threonine and lysine acids.</p> Rūta Dromantienė, Irena Pranckietienė, Gvidas Šidlauskas, Vita Smalstienė Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Wed, 04 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 A FUSARIOTOXINS IN FEED OF DAIRY COWS AND CARRY-OVER TO MILK AND IMPACT ON RAW MILK QUALITATIVE INDICATORS <p>The research aims of this study were to determine and to evaluate the effect of feed contaminated with different concentrations of fusariotoxins <strong>(</strong>zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON) on the quality of milk investigate concentration zearalenone in cow milk samples. Feed and milk samples were collected from dairy farms which were the high <em>Total Bacterial Count</em> (TBC) and <em>Somatic Cell Count</em> (SCC) in milk. Feed samples were tested by TLC (Romer Labs methods). The zearalenone (ZEA) in the milk was measured by ELISA test, RIDASCREEN® Zearalenon (R-Biopharm AG). The milk qualitative indicators testing was conducted by public enterprise „Pieno tyrimai“ (Lithuania). From 12 dairy cow farms, which have high TBC and SCC, were selected feed samples for detection of fusariotoxins. Average ZEA concentration in feed was 496.25±51 µg/kg (p&lt;0.05), DON average concentration in feed was 65.31±12 µg/kg (p&lt;0.05). Higher amount TBC in milk samples were in those farms where was detection ZEA and DON concentration. As a result, we can assume that the higher TBC in milk samples than 221±20 thous. CFU/ml was find in farms where in feed samples was detected the higher ZEA concentration than 700±50 µg/kg (p&lt;0.05). The highest levels than 650±42 of SCC in milk were found when the feed samples were contaminated ZEA - 700±50 µg/kg (p&lt;0.05) and more. It can also be observed that the higher the ZEA concentration in the sample is, the higher the amount of SCC follows. Comparing concentration ZEA in feed and in milk established percent from 0.01 to 0.31 % (p&lt;0.05). The highest levels of SCC and TBC were found in samples with high concentrations of ZEA. In 16 % milk samples we detected ZEA, concentration was from 0.08 µg/l to 0.4 µg/l.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Rimvydas Falkauskas, Violeta Baliukonienė, Bronius Bakutis, Jurgita Jovaišienė Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 29 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 SUSTAINABLE, CIRCULAR AND INNOVATIVE VALUE CHAINS USING GROWING SUBSTRATA ALTERNATIVE TO PEAT FOR THE CULTIVATION OF NUTRACEUTICAL SPECIES <p>The modern agricultural system is wasteful, with Europe generating some 700 million tonnes of agricultural and food waste each year. In the context of the agri-food chain, the ‘circular economy’ aims to reduce waste while also making best use of the ‘wastes’ produced by using economically viable processes and procedures to increase their value. In this paper we will try to frame the key issues associated with food waste into the emerging bioeconomy and circular-economic mode, suggesting that these three concepts are intertwined, and considering them unitarily might provide win-win solutions that minimize wastage, promote income growth and job creation, and prompt sustainable local development. In terms of performance and economic considerations, peat is in many ways an ideal constituent of soilless growing media. Peat has become the material of choice throughout plant production systems from propagation to saleable ‘finished plant’ material. However, the extraction of peat has well documented negative impacts on the environment; arguably the most important of these is the release of stable, sequestered carbon into the active carbon cycle, thereby exacerbating climate change. During the last 20 years, peat extraction has come under increasing scrutiny throughout Europe and particularly in the UK. This has generated an abundance of studies examining a diverse range of alternative materials (as compost, vermicompost, digestate, biochar). In the selection of new materials, environmental considerations have become as important as performance and economic cost. In this context there has been a justifiable emphasis on organic materials derived from agricultural, industrial and municipal waste streams. For future urban sustainability it is necessary to develop integrated processes, which can be part of a circular bio-economy. However the challenge still remains of simultaneously recycling the nutrients from the waste. The greenhouse horticulture applied to nutraceutical species is the ideal sector for improving the conversion rate of organic waste into food and health friendly products. On farm composting/vermicomposting/pyrolysis/anaerobic digestion and the use of the end-product to the partial substitution of peat in nursery activity allows reducing the environmental and economic costs in the production of potted plants.</p> Carlo Greco, Antonio Comparetti, Michele Massimo Mammano , Santo Orlando Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 HYDROPONIC DEVICES FOR GREEN FODDER PRODUCTION: A REVIEW <p>In traditional farming, plants require a lot of space (growing area), they consume a large amount of water, absorb a small percentage of nutrients in soil and are completely dependent on meteorological conditions. Therefore, growing crops in this way entails high costs and a high risk of invested funds. One of the measures to reduce these factors is the use of hydroponics.<br>In the study six types of hydroponic systems (HS) plant constructions based on plant nutrient supply technology were reviewed: ebb and flow HS; nutrient film technique (NFT) HS; aeroponics; deep water culture HS; “wick” HS and drip-irrigation HS. In addition, a review of the structural design of the hydroponic systems identified their advantages and disadvantages in green fodder production.<br>The most promising technology for the cultivation of green fodder is the NFT HS. This cultivation technology is appreciated in feed production for its highly utilized growing room volume and closed-loop irrigation solution to plants, which allows it to be easily automated based on solution parameters. Seven farms already have this technology in place in Lithuania. In order to optimize hydroponic fodder cultivation technology, it is expedient to improve NFT equipment and process control systems.</p> Andrius Grigas, Aurelija Kemzūraitė, Dainius Steponavičius Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 24 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 HERBS AS A SOURCE OF NATURAL PRESERVATIVES AGAINST RANCIDITY IN THE LOW-MOISTURE BAKERY PRODUCTS <p>In recent years, it is a global trend of avoiding the use of synthetic ingredients for the food products quality enhancement. In this case it is actual task to search for the alternative natural raw materials, which provide the stabilization the products quality during storage. Due to their chemical composition, physiological and functional-technological properties the usage of herbs is a perspective solution of this problem. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of natural ingredients based on herbs (powder and extracts) on the rancidity retardation. The antioxidant effect of herb raw-materials (hop, chamomile, nettle) was studied for the low-moisture bakery products with high fat content. These products are the ideal type of “food on the go” with long term of storage, which characterized with increasing popularity among modern consumers. The study was conducted at the Odessa National Academy of Food Technologies labs. The peroxide value of samples was determined by iodometric method (ISO 3960:2017). The results revealed that addition of natural antioxidants to the bakery goods in comparison to products without additives reduced this indicator up to the 37…52 %&nbsp; for the samples with herbs. It has been determined that hop, chamomile and nettle incorporation have pronounced antiseptic properties also. The use of herbs in the low-moisture bakery products technology leads to the quality stabilization during their shelf life, improvement of nutritional value and it may be more attractive to consumers due to their natural origin.</p> Kateryna Iorgachova, Olga Makarova, Nataliia Sokolova, Kateryna Khvostenko Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 24 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 APPLICATION OF OZONE IN GRAIN DRYING: AUTONOMOUS SENSOR SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION AND PECULARITIES <p>The capabilities of modern electronics for autonomous environmental monitoring with wireless data transmission and storage are diverse and give the network operator some freedom in performing any task. The aim of the study is to develop a sensor system for monitoring and controlling the active drying process of grain. An experimental prototype was developed and installed on the farm for two grain drying tanks of the same volume; for one of which the intake air was blended with ozone as a grain drying agent. The paper analyzes the desired and minimum number of monitoring parameters, sensor requirements, their optimal placement in grain drying tanks, data collection, transmission and storage, and data processing and display capabilities. By way of example, the preliminary results of grain drying in tank with ozone-enriched intake air are demonstrated.</p> Janis Kleperis, Alberts Kristins, Juris Veinbergs, Irina Gvardina, Dainis Viesturs, Adolfs Rucins, Evita Straumīte, Biruta Sloka, Juris Brūveris Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 15 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROALGAE-BASED FEED SUPPLEMENT AND THEIR POSSIBLE INFLUENCE ON CATTLE RUMEN MICROBIAL ECOSYSTEM <p>Rumen is a complex ecosystem where feed consumed by animals is digested by the help of rumen protozoa. They plays an important role in contributing nutrients to the host animal. This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary inclusion of unicellular microalgae <em>Chlorella vulgaris spp. </em>on total count and generic composition of protozoa in cows rumen. In this study, dietary treatments were tested during three 21-d experimental periods. Each of period content different amount of microalgae supplement. In the first experimental period in cows feed was added 30g (3,14g/kg of DM) of <em>Chlorella</em>, in second period-90g (9,6g/kg of DM) of <em>Chlorella </em>and in third period-170g (18,7 g/kg of DM). As a result of this study, ciliates of 10 genera were detected and identified. The number of this genera and total amount of ciliates were counted. The analysis of rumen protozoa population in tested cows shows visible effect of the presence of microalgae in cows dietary. In particular, the density of ciliates protozoa of the cows treated with 90 and 170 g of algal supplement was visibly higher compare to results from the control diet. Microalgae-based supplement diet had stimulative effect on ruminal protozoa population and caused increasing of many protozoa genera such as <em>Isotricha, Dasytricha, Charonina, Buetschlia, Ostracodinium, Ophryoscolex</em>.</p> Svetlana Malyugina, Milena Černohous, Oldřich Látal Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 APPLICATION OF SALVIA OFFICINALIS AND PICEA ABIES ESSENTIAL OILS FOR CONTROLLING COLLETOTRICHUM SPP. <p><em>Colletotrichum </em>spp. is a significant strawberry fruit pathogen, causing yield losses of up to 80% - growing resistance to pesticides demands to new, environmentally-friendly plant protection. Essential oils (EO) are one of the biological plant protection products suitable for pathogens control. The antimicrobial and antifungal activity of EO, biodegradability and low toxicity, make it potential for use in plant protection against pathogens instead of chemicals. The present study was carried out to investigate the antifungal effects of <em>Salvia officinalis </em>and <em>Picea abies </em>essential oils against strawberry <em>Colletotrichum</em> spp. The research carried at the LAMMC Institute of Horticulture. The bio-fungicidal effect was assessed based on radial growth inhibitions. There were evaluated several EO concentrations: 1000-1800 µl/l. Single-spore isolate fragment placed in the centre of PDA with different concentrations. Plates were incubated at oils 25 <sup>o</sup> C in darkness and evaluated after 2, 4, 7 days. <em>S. officinalis </em>and <em>P. abies </em>EO showed inhibitory effect on <em>Colletotrichum</em> spp. mycelial development. The <em>S. officinalis</em> inhibitory effect was more than 50% in all concentrations. The present study revealed that highest 1800 μl/l <em>S. officinalis</em> EO concentration <em>Colletotrichum</em> spp. colony diameter was significantly lower (1.84 cm) compared with control (5.75 cm). However, <em>P. abies </em>inhibition more than 50 % were only in concentrations from 1600 μl/l. According to our results, treatment with EO can reduce the growth of <em>Colletotrichum</em> spp. and EO could be an effective potential bio-fungicide to control strawberry anthracnose. EO as bio-fungicides characteristics is their natural origin and low risk for resistance development.</p> Armina Morkeliūnė, Neringa Rasiukevičiūtė, Daiva Burokienė, Alma Valiuškaitė Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 24 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 QUALITY EVALUATION OF HARDY KIWIFRUIT (ACTINIDIA KOLOMIKTA) USING NON-DESTRUCTIVE AND HOLISTIC RESEARCH METHODS <p>Fresh hardy kiwifruit (<em>Actinidia kolomikta </em>(Maxim. &amp; Rupr.) Maxim.) possible to store for only two weeks at 0–5°C, therefore in order to maintain longer, the fruit have to be processed. The purpose of the study was to determine the quality of the <em>Actinidia kolomikta</em> fruit using research methods that are faster and easier, i.e. bioelectric Vincent method and biocrystallization. Four cultivars of <em>Actinidia kolomikta</em> fruits – ‘Landė’<em>, </em>‘Paukštės Šakarva’<em>, </em>‘Laiba’ and ‘Lankė’ – were investigated. Fresh, frozen and freeze-dried fruit were analysed. The amount of dry matter was determined by drying the samples to constant mass at 105 ºC, ascorbic acid was determined by titration with 2,6-dichlorphenol-indophenol sodium salt dehydrate. The pH and redox potential were measured by 781 pH/Ion Meter, electrical conductivity was measured by conductometer. P value as combined parameter was calculated according to the formula. Biocrystallization studies were carried out with fresh, frozen and freeze-dried fruits of all cultivars. The images derived from the encoded by sort samples were characterised with respect to the visual strength of form expression and were described by 10 criteria, criteria were evaluated using a 5-point scale. Research results showed that the dry matter and ascorbic acid content of <em>A. kolomikta</em> fruit significantly depended on the cultivar. Dry matter content of frozen fruit decreased from 4 to 7%, but increased during freeze-drying process by 6 to 7 times compare to the fresh fruit. Fruit processing methods increased pH, redox potential and P values. The lowest redox potential and P values were determined for fresh fruit, medium for freeze-dried and the highest for frozen fruit samples.</p> Aurelija Paulauskienė, Živilė Tarasevičienė, Daiva Šileikienė Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Mon, 16 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 MASTERING AGTECH AGAIN: EMERGING OF NEW TRAINING OFFERS AND INTERMEDIATE PLAYERS <p>Agricultural machinery manufacturers historically referred to the intermediate players for selling, maintenance, customer service and/or training of equipment appear to interact with farmers and end-users. Intermediate players have therefore faced the burden to master the technology, in constant evolution, and the associated training needs at the interface between a sophisticated equipment and the end-user and its sociological characteristics (age, education, background, etc.). However, the effective deployment of agricultural technologies data augmented equipment demands well trained players. How to ensure that the intermediate players have the required skills to integrate the use of agtech in the farm? This paper will discuss the role of educational and ongoing vocational training for the mastery of agtech. We will start from a comparative review of some key national and European technical reports in the agricultural equipment and innovation domains. On these bases, we will focus on France to describe the role of intermediate players of the agricultural equipment sector to realize their agricultural and digital transitions.</p> Davide Rizzo, Simon Ritz, Anne Combaud Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 29 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 QUALITY OF SWEET POTATO AS A RAW MATERIAL FOR FOOD PROCESSING <p>The aim of the study was to assess the possible antioxidant and antiproliferative effects of various sweet potato extracts (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam) in terms of their suitability for food processing. Antioxidant activity of water infusions from the leaves of 5 sweet potato varieties (Carmen Rubin, Cananua, Georgia Jet, Satsumo Imo, White Triumph) obtained from field cultivation in Felin (51°13'N, 22°37'E) was determined. The field experiment was carried out using the randomized blocks method, in triplicate, in accordance with the principles of good agricultural practice. The leaves were collected at phase 68 according to the BBCH scale. After harvesting, the leaves were dried to constant weight. After drying, the leaves were saturated with water at 80 ° C and 100 ° C for 3, 6 and 9 minutes. The total content of phenolic compounds was determined by the method of Ghasemzadeh et al. Antioxidant activity of sweet potato leaf infusions was determined by DPPH radical spectrophotometry. The time to prepare the infusions significantly differentiated the TP content. Infusions evaluated after 3 minutes were the most favorable in this respect. The antioxidant activity of the tested infusions obtained from sweet potato leaves ranged from 33% to 59%, depending on the variety, and 34-43%, depending on the time the infusion was prepared. Leaf infusions prepared at 100°C had a higher antioxidant activity than infusions made at 80°C. The highest antioxidant activity was revealed by infusions from White Triumph cultivar leaves, lowest - from Cananua cultivar leaves.</p> Barbara Sawicka, Barbara Krochmal-Marczak, Dominika Skiba, Piotr Pszczółkowski Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 24 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 FUNGI AND MYCOTOXINS IN FRESH BEE POLLEN <p>The aim of the present study was to determine the concentration of microscopic fungi and selected mycotoxins in fresh bee pollen, stored for different periods. In the study, 12 pollen samples collected from the same apiary families were investigated. The total count of microorganisms in the pollen during the study period varied from 2.9×10<sup>3</sup> to 4.4×10<sup>3</sup> cfu g<sup>-1</sup>. The moisture content of fresh pollen varied between 14.2 and 22.7%. During studies, the most prevalent fungal genera of <em>Fusarium</em>, <em>Penicillium, Alternaria</em>, <em>Mucor </em>and yeast were found in fresh bee pollen. The amounts of microscopic fungi increased from 2.9×10<sup>3</sup> to 4.4×10<sup>3</sup> cfu g<sup>-1</sup> as the pollen storage time increased. The significantly higest amounts of fungal colonies was determined after 3 days storage of undried pollen. The most significant <em>Fusarium</em> spp. increase (14.9%) was determined after 2 days of storage. The highest levels of mycotoxins ZEN and DON were determined after 3 days of pollen storage. Fresh bee pollen chould be dried as quickly as possible, to reduce the levels of microbial contamination.</p> Jolanta Sinkevičienė, Aušra Marcinkevičienė, Violeta Baliukonienė, Jurgita Jovaišienė Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 24 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 ECONOMICAL EVALUATION OF REDUCED INTENSITY TILLAGE SYSTEMS, STRAW AND GREEN MANURE COMBINATIONS <p>Since 1999, a long-term field experiment has been done at the Experimental Station of Vytautas Magnus University (former Aleksandras Stulginskis University) at 54º52′50 N latitude and 23º49′41 E longitude. The soil of the experiment site is Epieutric Endocalcaric Endogleyic Planosol (Endoclayic, Aric, Drainic, Humic, Episiltic) according to WRB (2014). The objective of our investigations was to assess the long-term impact of reduced intensity tillage systems, straw and green manure combinations on productivity and economical evaluation.</p> <p>A short crop rotation was introduced: winter wheat, spring barley, spring rape. The results were obtained in 2000-2017. Sustainable agroecosystems are able to maintain their condition, productivity and biodiversity, as well as their integrity over time and in the context of human activity and use. The sustainability of agroecosystems is inseparable from the stability of their productivity. In order to illustrate this, we estimated crop productivity differences % from the year 2000 to 2017. In terms of crop productivity, all the tested long-term complex measures of different intensities were similar, both when comparing with average productivity that year and when estimating cumulative differences com-pared with deep ploughing.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Vaida Steponavičienė, Vaclovas Bogužas, Asta Bendoraitytė, Aušra Sinkevičienė, Lina Skinulienė Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Wed, 04 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 THE EFFECT OF SPICE EXTRACTS ON STRAWBERRY PATHOGEN BOTRYTIS CINEREA <p><em>Botrytis cinerea</em>, the causal agent of strawberry grey mold, has become a severe problem of horticultural farms due to its genetic variability and growing resistance to frequently used fungicides. Plant disease could induce significant losses of yields and plants thus it is necessary to discover and apply novel approaches to control strawberry pathogens. In addition, chemical plant protection products can leave undesirable residues in fruits and the environment. Plant protection should be more friendly to the environment and human than already used chemical measures. One of the alternatives could be plant-based extracts, produced from aromatic and medicinal herbs, spices, fruits. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the <em>in vitro</em> effect of cinnamon bark (<em>Cinnamomum cassia</em> L.) and clove bud (<em>Syzygium aromaticum</em> L.) extracts on <em>B. cinerea</em> colony growth. Experiments were carried out at LAMMC Institute of Horticulture, Lithuania. Both extracts were obtained from dried material by extraction with CO<sub>2</sub>. For <em>in vitro</em> assay, extracts were separately mixed with potato dextrose agar in concentrations from 200 to 1000 μl/l, poured into Petri dishes, then each dish was inoculated with 6 mm diameter <em>B. cinerea</em> disc and incubated at 22±2 <sup>o</sup>C in the dark for 7 days. The diameter of the pathogen colony was measured 2, 4 and 7 days after inoculation. Concentrations of the extracts, which demonstrated reduced growth of the pathogen, were considered to have an antifungal effect. The results showed that extracts of cinnamon bark and clove bud had a similar antifungal effect on <em>B. cinerea</em> and suppressed the growth of 100% from 600 μl/l concentrations 4 days after inoculation. At 600-1000 μl/l, no growth of the pathogen was detected for both extracts 7 days after inoculation. However, clove bud extract considered to be more effective, as the diameter of <em>B. cinerea</em> colonies was smaller compared to cinnamon bark extract at 200-400 μl/l concentrations. To conclude, spice extracts of cinnamon bark and clove bud demonstrated antifungal effect on <em>B. cinerea</em> <em>in vitro</em> and could possibly be applied for control of strawberry grey mold.</p> Lina Šernaitė, Alma Valiuškaitė, Neringa Raisukevičiūtė, Edita Dambrauskienė, Pranas Viškelis Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 24 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT SPECIES OF YEAST ON MYCOTOXINS CONCENTRATIONS IN WHEAT <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of <em>Saccharomyes cerevisiae</em>, <em>Geotrichum fermentans</em>, <em>Rhodotorula rubra</em> and <em>Kluyveromyces marxianus</em> yeast cell suspensions and <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em> cell wall’s polysaccharides and fermentation time on mycotoxins concentrations in feed wheat. The 2018 harvest three feed wheat samples were taken from grain processing companies and the research was carried out at the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Veterinary Academy, Mycotoxicology Laboratory. The thin – layer chromatography technique (TLC) was used to determine mycotoxins concentrations in the samples. The wheat samples were inoculated with <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em>, <em>Geotrichum fermentans</em> <em>Rhodotorula rubra</em> and <em>Kluyveromyces marxianus</em> yeast 10<sup>4</sup> cells` ml<sup>-1</sup> suspensions and <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em> cell wall`s polysaccharides, duration of the wheat fermentation with the yeast was – 30 min. and 60 min. It was found that all species the yeast suspensions – reducing effect of mycotoxins concentrations correlated with longer duration of fermentation. <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em> yeast suspension after 60 min. reduced AFB<sub>1 </sub>and DON by 100% (p&lt;0.05) and ZEA up to 80.1 ± 0.50% (p&lt;0.05). <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em> yeast cell wall`s polysaccharides decreased the concentrations of AFB1 (p&gt;0.05), ZEA (p&lt;0.05), DON (p&lt;0.05) during the experiment better than <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em> 10<sup>4</sup> cells` ml<sup>-1</sup> suspension and after 60 min. exposure polysaccharides absorbed all wheat mycotoxins by 100% (p&lt;0.05). The AFB1 were best absorbed by <em>Kluyveromyces marxianus </em>yeast after 60 min. of fermentation by 100% (p&lt;0.05). The DON concentration was below the detection limit after 60 min. of fermentation with <em>Geotrichum fermentans </em>and <em>Rhodotorula rubra </em>yeast.</p> Gintarė Vaičiulienė, Algimantas Paškevičius, Laura Knizikevičiūtė, Gediminas Gerulis Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Wed, 04 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 CREATED OF AN INTEGRATED QUALITY SYSTEM FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CANNED MEAT FOR CHILD NUTRITION <p>The development of an integrated safety and quality system at enterprises for the production of baby food includes measures &nbsp;thataimed at analyzing risks and identifying critical control points throughout the process. The article presents studies on the identification and analysis of hazards and assessing the severity of the consequences of their manifestation. In order to integrate, the international standards ISO 9001 and ISO 22000 were selected, on the basis of which the quality system processes were identified, the resources and requirements for them were determined, as well as the parameters for monitoring these processes, the criteria for evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of the developed system were established. Within the framework of the integrated system, the main and interior processes were identified. The main processes include organization management processes, planning and implementation processes for safe and quality products, and processes for monitoring, analysis and improvement. Support processes include processes for managing the organization’s personnel, its infrastructure and production environment, as well as processes for managing documentation and records of the system.</p> Elena Voloshina, Nina Dunchenko, Arina Odintcova, Svetlana Kuptsova, Olga Fedotova Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 FOOD QUALITY MANAGEMENT BASED ON QUALIMETRIC METHODS <p>Fusing best international and local quality management and control practices is one of the most effective ways to gain competitive advantage. Among other things, this includes implementing "customer focus" and "factual decision-making", the key principles of Universal Quality Management, through qualimetric models. The authors have identified qualimtric models with the best quality management potential across the food processing industry, at different product life cycle stages. They especially emphasize the potential of applying qualimetric forecast to food quality and safety. The authors have identified the main stages of product quality metrics forecasting to predict and achieve the desirable food quality in the most effective way possible. The proposed methods are a combination of qualifying methods and world’s best quality management tools and techniques. With the example of quality management in curd products at the development stage the authorship points out the indicators defining product quality and safety, ranks value in building product quality, gives a math formula to describe product quality and an algorithm to assess product quality based on a comprehensive quality indicator and deduce recommendations to achieve desirable and predictable product properties. The proposed stages of qualimetric forecasting, based on the integration of qualimetric models in quality management, have been tested on some curd products in production and proven to be practically effective.</p> Valentina Yankovskaya, Nina Dunchenko, Dinara Artykova, Marina Ginzburg, Kermen Mikhaylova, Elena Voloshina Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Rural Development” Sun, 24 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200